## PHYSICS 16: The Origin and Development of the Cosmos

How did the present Universe come to be? The last few decades have seen remarkable progress in understanding this age-old question. Course will cover the history of the Universe from its earliest moments to the present day, and the physical laws that govern its evolution. The early Universe including inflation and the creation of matter and the elements. Recent discoveries in our understanding of the makeup of the cosmos, including dark matter and dark energy. Evolution of galaxies, clusters, and quasars, and the Universe as a whole. Implications of dark matter and dark energy for the future evolution of the cosmos. Intended to be accessible to non-science majors, material is explored quantitatively with problem sets using basic algebra and numerical estimates.

Terms: Win, Sum
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Gill, M. (PI)
;
Wechsler, R. (PI)

## PHYSICS 18N: Frontiers in Theoretical Physics and Cosmology

Preference to freshmen. The course will begin with a description of the current standard models of gravitation, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. We will then focus on frontiers of current understanding including investigations of very early universe cosmology, string theory, and the physics of black holes.

Terms: Win
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Dimopoulos, S. (PI)

## PHYSICS 23: Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics

How are electric and magnetic fields generated by static and moving charges, and what are their applications? How is light related to electromagnetic waves? Students learn to represent and analyze electric and magnetic fields to understand electric circuits, motors, and generators. The wave nature of light is used to explain interference, diffraction, and polarization phenomena. Geometric optics is employed to understand how lenses and mirrors form images. These descriptions are combined to understand the workings and limitations of optical systems such as the eye, corrective vision, cameras, telescopes, and microscopes. Discussions based on the language of algebra and trigonometry. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 21 or
PHYSICS 21S.

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Fox, J. (PI)

## PHYSICS 24: Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics Laboratory

Guided hands-on exploration of concepts in electricity and magnetism, circuits and optics with an emphasis on student predictions, observations and explanations. Introduction to multimeters and oscilloscopes. Pre- or corequisite: PHYS 23.

Terms: Win
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Fox, J. (PI)

## PHYSICS 41: Mechanics

How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on inte
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How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. In order to register for this class students must EITHER have already taken an introductory Physics class (20, 40, or 60 sequence) or have taken the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Prerequisite: High school physics and
MATH 20 or
MATH 51 or
CME 100 or equivalent. Minimum co-requisite:
MATH 21 or equivalent.

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Lee, Y. (PI)

## PHYSICS 41E: Mechanics, Concepts, Calculations, and Context

Physics 41E (
Physics 41 Extended) is an 5-unit version of
Physics 41 (4 units) for students with little or no high school physics or calculus. Course topics and mathematical complexity are identical to
Physics 41, but the extra classroom time allows students to engage with concepts, develop problem solving skills, and become fluent in mathematical tools that include vector representations and operations, and calculus. The course will use problems drawn from everyday life to explore important physical principles in mechanics, such as Newton's Laws of motion, equations of kinematics, and conservation of energy and momentum. Prerequisite:
Math 19 or equivalent; Co-requisite:
Math 20 or equivalent. In order to register for this class students must EITHER have already taken an introductory Physics class (20, 40, or 60 sequence) or have taken the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Enrollment is via permission number which can be obtained by filling in the application at
https://stanforduniversity.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_6gpr3SkM76WNDVP.

Terms: Win
| Units: 5
| UG Reqs: WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Church, S. (PI)
;
Wieman, C. (PI)

## PHYSICS 42: Classical Mechanics Laboratory

Hands-on exploration of concepts in classical mechanics: Newton's laws, conservation laws, rotational motion. Introduction to laboratory techniques, experimental equipment and data analysis. Pre- or corequisite:
PHYSICS 41

Terms: Win
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Cabrera, B. (PI)

## PHYSICS 63: Electricity, Magnetism, and Waves

(Second in a three-part advanced freshman physics series:
PHYSICS 61,
PHYSICS 63,
PHYSICS 65.) This course covers the foundations of electricity and magnetism for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Electricity, magnetism, and waves with some description of optics. Electrostatics and Gauss' law. Electric potential, electric field, conductors, image charges. Electric currents, DC circuits. Moving charges, magnetic field, Ampere's law. Solenoids, transformers, induction, AC circuits, resonance. Relativistic point of view for moving charges. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, dielectrics. Diffraction, interference, refraction, reflection, polarization. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 61 and
MATH 51 or
MATH 61CM. Pre- or corequisite:
MATH 52 or
MATH 62CM.

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Goldhaber-Gordon, D. (PI)

## PHYSICS 64: Electricity, Magnetism and Waves Laboratory

Introduction to multimeters, breadboards, function generators and oscilloscopes. Emphasis on student-developed design of experimental procedure and data analysis for topics covered in
PHYSICS 63: electricity, magnetism, circuits, and optics. Pre- or corequisite:
PHYSICS 63

Terms: Win
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Goldhaber-Gordon, D. (PI)

## PHYSICS 107: Intermediate Physics Laboratory II: Experimental Techniques and Data Analysis

Experiments on lasers, Gaussian optics, and atom-light interaction, with emphasis on data and error analysis techniques. Students describe a subset of experiments in scientific paper format. Prerequisites: completion of PHYSICS 40 or
PHYSICS 60 series, and
PHYSICS 70 and
PHYSICS 105. Recommended pre- or corequisites:
PHYSICS 120 and 130. WIM

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Hollberg, L. (PI)

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