## PHYSICS 21: Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat

How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe phenomena as diverse as spinning gymnasts, blood flow, and sound waves. Understanding many-particle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and performance limits of heat engines. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problem-solving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 21S: Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat with Laboratory

How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe phenomena as diverse as spinning gymnasts, blood flow, and sound waves. Understanding many-particle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and performance limits of heat engines. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problem-solving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Labs are an integrated part of the summer course. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required.

Terms: Sum
| Units: 5
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Betre, K. (PI)

## PHYSICS 23: Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics

How are electric and magnetic fields generated by static and moving charges, and what are their applications? How is light related to electromagnetic waves? Students learn to represent and analyze electric and magnetic fields to understand electric circuits, motors, and generators. The wave nature of light is used to explain interference, diffraction, and polarization phenomena. Geometric optics is employed to understand how lenses and mirrors form images. These descriptions are combined to understand the workings and limitations of optical systems such as the eye, corrective vision, cameras, telescopes, and microscopes. Discussions based on the language of algebra and trigonometry. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 21 or
PHYSICS 21S.

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Linde, A. (PI)
;
Geslin, A. (SI)
;
Geslin, A. (TA)
...
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Instructors:
Linde, A. (PI)
;
Geslin, A. (SI)
;
Geslin, A. (TA)
;
Kountz, E. (TA)
;
Malia, B. (TA)
;
Yang, Z. (TA)
;
Zerger, C. (TA)

## PHYSICS 23S: Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics with Laboratory

How are electric and magnetic fields generated by static and moving charges, and what are their applications? How is light related to electromagnetic waves? Students learn to represent and analyze electric and magnetic fields to understand electric circuits, motors, and generators. The wave nature of light is used to explain interference, diffraction, and polarization phenomena. Geometric optics is employed to understand how lenses and mirrors form images. These descriptions are combined to understand the workings and limitations of optical systems such as the eye, corrective vision, cameras, telescopes, and microscopes. Discussions based on the language of algebra and trigonometry. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Labs are an integrated part of the summer courses. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 21 or
PHYSICS 21S.

Terms: Sum
| Units: 5
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Wiser, T. (PI)

## PHYSICS 25: Modern Physics

How do the discoveries since the dawn of the 20th century impact our understanding of 21st-century physics? This course introduces the foundations of modern physics: Einstein's theory of special relativity and quantum mechanics. Combining the language of physics with tools from algebra and trigonometry, students gain insights into how the universe works on both the smallest and largest scales. Topics may include atomic, molecular, and laser physics; semiconductors; elementary particles and the fundamental forces; nuclear physics (fission, fusion, and radioactivity); astrophysics and cosmology (the contents and evolution of the universe). Emphasis on applications of modern physics in everyday life, progress made in our understanding of the universe, and open questions that are the subject of active research. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 23 or
PHYSICS 23S.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Irwin, K. (PI)
;
Fort, S. (TA)
;
Hartman, N. (TA)
...
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## PHYSICS 41: Mechanics

How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite: High school physics or concurrent enrollment in
PHYSICS 41A.
MATH 20 or
MATH 41 or
MATH 51 or
CME 100 or equivalent. Minimum corequisite:
MATH 21 or
MATH 42 or equivalent.

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Lee, Y. (PI)
;
Alpert, A. (TA)
;
BERGES, V. (TA)
;
Beigi, B. (TA)
;
Chi, H. (TA)
;
Feigelis, K. (TA)
;
Gannot, Y. (TA)
;
Garland, R. (TA)
;
Kwiatkowski, A. (TA)
;
Lee, K. (TA)
;
McCandlish, S. (TA)
;
Mina, R. (TA)
;
Mukhopadhaya, J. (TA)
;
Panagopoulos, G. (TA)
;
Raghavan, A. (TA)
;
Safdari, M. (TA)
;
Sakaguchi, D. (TA)
;
Sun, Y. (TA)
;
de Becdelievre, J. (TA)

## PHYSICS 43: Electricity and Magnetism

What is electricity? What is magnetism? How are they related? How do these phenomena manifest themselves in the physical world? The theory of electricity and magnetism, as codified by Maxwell's equations, underlies much of the observable universe. Students develop both conceptual and quantitative knowledge of this theory. Topics include: electrostatics; magnetostatics; simple AC and DC circuits involving capacitors, inductors, and resistors; integral form of Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves. Principles illustrated in the context of modern technologies. Broader scientific questions addressed include: How do physical theories evolve? What is the interplay between basic physical theories and associated technologies? Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly differential and integral calculus, and vectors. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 41 or equivalent.
MATH 21 or
MATH 42 or
MATH 51 or
CME 100 or equivalent. Recommended corequisite:
MATH 52 or
CME 102.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Kasevich, M. (PI)
;
Cheung, A. (TA)
;
Coppess, K. (TA)
...
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Instructors:
Kasevich, M. (PI)
;
Cheung, A. (TA)
;
Coppess, K. (TA)
;
DeRocco, W. (TA)
;
Dodaro, J. (TA)
;
Ghazi Nezami, S. (TA)
;
Henighan, T. (TA)
;
Hughes, A. (TA)
;
Nadler, E. (TA)
;
Salton, G. (TA)
;
Solt, M. (TA)
;
Son, J. (TA)
;
Wang, B. (TA)
;
Wollack, A. (TA)

## PHYSICS 45: Light and Heat

What is temperature? How do the elementary processes of mechanics, which are intrinsically reversible, result in phenomena that are clearly irreversible when applied to a very large number of particles, the ultimate example being life? In thermodynamics, students discover that the approach of classical mechanics is not sufficient to deal with the extremely large number of particles present in a macroscopic amount of gas. The paradigm of thermodynamics leads to a deeper understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and the performance limits of thermal engines. In optics, students see how a geometrical approach allows the design of optical systems based on reflection and refraction, while the wave nature of light leads to interference phenomena. The two approaches come together in understanding the diffraction limit of microscopes and telescopes. Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 41 or equivalent.
MATH 21 or
MATH 42 or
MATH 51 or
CME 100 or equivalent.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Gratta, G. (PI)
;
Alpert, A. (TA)
;
Banerjee, A. (TA)
...
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Instructors:
Gratta, G. (PI)
;
Alpert, A. (TA)
;
Banerjee, A. (TA)
;
Bevillard, B. (TA)
;
Cheung, A. (TA)
;
Garland, R. (TA)
;
Harvey, B. (TA)
;
Kang, J. (TA)
;
Kwiatkowski, A. (TA)
;
Rodriguez, I. (TA)
;
Sun, Y. (TA)
;
Wenren, D. (TA)
;
de Becdelievre, J. (TA)

## PHYSICS 50: Observational Astronomy Laboratory

Introduction to observational astronomy emphasizing the use of optical telescopes. Observations of stars, nebulae, and galaxies in laboratory sessions with telescopes at the Stanford Student Observatory. Meets at the observatory one evening per week from dusk until well after dark, in addition to day-time lectures each week. No previous physics required. Limited enrollment.

Terms: Aut, Sum
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Bailey, V. (PI)
;
Roodman, A. (PI)
;
Baumer, M. (TA)
...
more instructors for PHYSICS 50 »

Instructors:
Bailey, V. (PI)
;
Roodman, A. (PI)
;
Baumer, M. (TA)
;
Davis, C. (TA)
;
Snyder, A. (TA)

## PHYSICS 61: Mechanics and Special Relativity

(First in a three-part advanced freshman physics series:
PHYSICS 61,
PHYSICS 63,
PHYSICS 65.) This course covers Einstein's special theory of relativity and Newtonian mechanics at a level appropriate for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Postulates of special relativity, simultaneity, time dilation, length contraction, the Lorentz transformation, causality, and relativistic mechanics. Central forces, contact forces, linear restoring forces. Momentum transport, work, energy, collisions. Angular momentum, torque, moment of inertia in three dimensions. Damped and forced harmonic oscillators. Uses the language of vectors and multivariable calculus. Recommended prerequisites: Mastery of mechanics at the level of AP Physics C and AP Calculus BC or equivalent. Corequisite:
MATH 51.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Burchat, P. (PI)
;
Wiser, T. (SI)
;
Guo, Y. (TA)
;
Penington, G. (TA)
;
Sakaguchi, D. (TA)
;
Sytwu, K. (TA)

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