## PHYSICS 25: Modern Physics

How do the discoveries since the dawn of the 20th century impact our understanding of 21st-century physics? This course introduces the foundations of modern physics: Einstein's theory of special relativity and quantum mechanics. Combining the language of physics with tools from algebra and trigonometry, students gain insights into how the universe works on both the smallest and largest scales. Topics may include atomic, molecular, and laser physics; semiconductors; elementary particles and the fundamental forces; nuclear physics (fission, fusion, and radioactivity); astrophysics and cosmology (the contents and evolution of the universe). Emphasis on applications of modern physics in everyday life, progress made in our understanding of the universe, and open questions that are the subject of active research. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 23 or
PHYSICS 23S.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 41: Mechanics

How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on inte
more »

How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Spring 2020-21: Class will be taught remote synchronously in active learning format with much of the learning in smaller breakout rooms so class will not be recorded. Please enroll in a section that you can attend regularly. In order to register for this class all FROSH must complete the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Students who complete the Physics Placement Diagnostic by 3 PM (Pacific) on Friday will have their hold lifted over the weekend. Minimum prerequisites: High school physics and
MATH 20 (or high school calculus if sufficiently rigorous). Minimum co-requisite:
MATH 21 or equivalent. Since high school math classes vary widely, it is recommended that you take at least one math class at Stanford before or concurrently with taking
Physics 41. In addition, it is recommended that you take
Math 51 or
CME 100 before taking the next course in the
Physics 40 series,
Physics 43.

Terms: Aut, Spr
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Graham, P. (PI)
;
Lee, Y. (PI)
;
Nanavati, C. (PI)
...
more instructors for PHYSICS 41 »

Instructors:
Graham, P. (PI)
;
Lee, Y. (PI)
;
Nanavati, C. (PI)
;
Tompkins, L. (PI)
;
Allen, J. (TA)
;
Arevalo, C. (TA)
;
Been, E. (TA)
;
Braganca, D. (TA)
;
Flores, A. (TA)
;
Foutty, B. (TA)
;
Ghosh, O. (TA)
;
Haidu Gerea, P. (TA)
;
Hing, D. (TA)
;
Hoke, J. (TA)
;
Jonay, C. (TA)
;
Kometter, C. (TA)
;
Larsen, B. (TA)
;
Li, X. (TA)
;
Liu, A. (TA)
;
Nowak, J. (TA)
;
Paul, T. (TA)
;
Prabhu, A. (TA)
;
Reilly, A. (TA)
;
San Miguel, J. (TA)
;
Sandor, J. (TA)
;
Valenzuela Lombera, I. (TA)
;
Villanueva, B. (TA)
;
Wong, J. (TA)
;
Wong, S. (TA)
;
Yuan, A. (TA)
;
Zerger, C. (TA)

## PHYSICS 41E: Mechanics, Concepts, Calculations, and Context

Physics 41E (
Physics 41 Extended) is an 5-unit version of
Physics 41 (4 units) for students with little or no high school physics or calculus. Course topics and mathematical complexity are identical to
Physics 41, but the extra classroom time allows students to engage with concepts, develop problem solving skills, and become fluent in mathematical tools that include vector representations and operations, and calculus. The course will use problems drawn from everyday life to explore important physical principles in mechanics, such as Newton's Laws of motion, equations of kinematics, and conservation of energy and momentum. Prerequisite:
Math 19 or equivalent; Co-requisite:
Math 20 or equivalent. In order to register for this class students must EITHER have already taken an introductory Physics class (20, 40, or 60 sequence) or have taken the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Enrollment is via permission number which can be obtained by filling in the application at
https://stanforduniversity.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_2fNzeSIjoYtKiln.

Last offered: Winter 2020
| UG Reqs: WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 43: Electricity and Magnetism

What is electricity? What is magnetism? How are they related? How do these phenomena manifest themselves in the physical world? The theory of electricity and magnetism, as codified by Maxwell's equations, underlies much of the observable universe. Students develop both conceptual and quantitative knowledge of this theory. Topics include: electrostatics; magnetostatics; simple AC and DC circuits involving capacitors, inductors, and resistors; integral form of Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves. Principles illustrated in the context of modern technologies. Broader scientific questions addressed include: How do physical theories evolve? What is the interplay between basic physical theories and associated technologies? Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly differential and integral calculus, and vectors. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 41 or equivalent.
MATH 21 or
MATH 51 or
CME 100 or equivalent. Recommended corequisite:
MATH 52 or
CME 102.

Terms: Win, Sum
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Cabrera, B. (PI)
;
Nanni, E. (PI)
;
Abe, M. (TA)
;
Calvera, V. (TA)
;
Corbin, J. (TA)
;
Lee, K. (TA)
;
Liu, A. (TA)
;
Liu, T. (TA)
;
Molodyk, M. (TA)
;
Moreau, G. (TA)
;
Mousatov, A. (TA)
;
Radzyminski, R. (TA)
;
Reilly, A. (TA)
;
Ren, X. (TA)
;
Rodenbach, L. (TA)
;
Thompson, J. (TA)

## PHYSICS 45: Light and Heat

What is temperature? How do the elementary processes of mechanics, which are intrinsically reversible, result in phenomena that are clearly irreversible when applied to a very large number of particles, the ultimate example being life? In thermodynamics, students discover that the approach of classical mechanics is not sufficient to deal with the extremely large number of particles present in a macroscopic amount of gas. The paradigm of thermodynamics leads to a deeper understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and the performance limits of thermal engines. In optics, students see how a geometrical approach allows the design of optical systems based on reflection and refraction, while the wave nature of light leads to interference phenomena. The two approaches come together in understanding the diffraction limit of microscopes and telescopes. Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction
more »

What is temperature? How do the elementary processes of mechanics, which are intrinsically reversible, result in phenomena that are clearly irreversible when applied to a very large number of particles, the ultimate example being life? In thermodynamics, students discover that the approach of classical mechanics is not sufficient to deal with the extremely large number of particles present in a macroscopic amount of gas. The paradigm of thermodynamics leads to a deeper understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and the performance limits of thermal engines. In optics, students see how a geometrical approach allows the design of optical systems based on reflection and refraction, while the wave nature of light leads to interference phenomena. The two approaches come together in understanding the diffraction limit of microscopes and telescopes. Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. In order to register for this class students must EITHER have already taken an introductory Physics class (20, 40, or 60 sequence) or have taken the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 41 or equivalent.
MATH 21 or
MATH 51 or
CME 100 or equivalent.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Gratta, G. (PI)
;
Brubaker, M. (TA)
;
Channa, S. (TA)
...
more instructors for PHYSICS 45 »

Instructors:
Gratta, G. (PI)
;
Brubaker, M. (TA)
;
Channa, S. (TA)
;
Gauthier, A. (TA)
;
Huffman, N. (TA)
;
Kandel, D. (TA)
;
LU, H. (TA)
;
Larsen, B. (TA)
;
Mousatov, A. (TA)
;
Thompson, J. (TA)

## PHYSICS 50: Astronomy Laboratory and Observational Astronomy

Introduction to observational astronomy emphasizing the use of optical telescopes. Observations of stars, nebulae, and galaxies in laboratory sessions with telescopes at the Stanford Student Observatory. Meets at the observatory one evening per week from dusk until well after dark, in addition to day-time lectures each week. No previous physics required. Limited enrollment.

Last offered: Summer 2019
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 61: Mechanics and Special Relativity

(First in a three-part advanced freshman physics series:
PHYSICS 61,
PHYSICS 63,
PHYSICS 65.) This course covers Einstein's special theory of relativity and Newtonian mechanics at a level appropriate for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Postulates of special relativity, simultaneity, time dilation, length contraction, the Lorentz transformation, causality, and relativistic mechanics. Central forces, contact forces, linear restoring forces. Momentum transport, work, energy, collisions. Angular momentum, torque, moment of inertia in three dimensions. Damped and forced harmonic oscillators. Uses the language of vectors and multivariable calculus. In order to register for this class students must EITHER have already taken an introductory Physics class (20, 40, or 60 sequence) or have taken the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Recommended prerequisites: Mastery of mechanics at the level of AP Physics C and AP Calculus BC or equivalent. Corequisite:
MATH 51 or
MATH 61CM or
MATH 61DM.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 63: Electricity, Magnetism, and Waves

(Second in a three-part advanced freshman physics series:
PHYSICS 61,
PHYSICS 63,
PHYSICS 65.) This course covers the foundations of electricity and magnetism for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Electricity, magnetism, and waves with some description of optics. Electrostatics and Gauss' law. Electric potential, electric field, conductors, image charges. Electric currents, DC circuits. Moving charges, magnetic field, Ampere's law. Solenoids, transformers, induction, AC circuits, resonance. Relativistic point of view for moving charges. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, dielectrics. Diffraction, interference, refraction, reflection, polarization. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 61 and
MATH 51 or
MATH 61CM. Pre- or corequisite:
MATH 52 or
MATH 62CM.

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Goldhaber-Gordon, D. (PI)
;
Coppess, K. (TA)
;
Larsen, B. (TA)
...
more instructors for PHYSICS 63 »

Instructors:
Goldhaber-Gordon, D. (PI)
;
Coppess, K. (TA)
;
Larsen, B. (TA)
;
Shyani, M. (TA)
;
Wang, B. (TA)

## PHYSICS 65: Quantum and Thermal Physics

(Third in a three-part advanced freshman physics series:
PHYSICS 61,
PHYSICS 63,
PHYSICS 65.) This course introduces the foundations of quantum and thermodynamics for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Topics related to quantum mechanics include: atoms, electrons, nuclei. Experimental evidence for physics that is not explained by classical mechanics and E&M. Quantization of light, Planck's constant. Photoelectric effect, Compton and Bragg scattering. Bohr model, atomic spectra. Matter waves, wave packets, interference. Fourier analysis and transforms, Heisenberg uncertainty relationships. Particle-in-a-box, simple harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, tunneling. Topics related to thermodynamics: limitations of classical mechanics in describing systems with a very large number of particles. Ideal gas, equipartition, heat capacity, definition of temperature, entropy. Brief introduction to kinetic theory and statistical mechanics. Maxwell speed distribution, ideal gas in a box. Laws of thermodynamics. Cycles, heat engines, free energy. Prerequisites:
PHYSICS 61 &
PHYSICS 63.

Terms: Sum
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA, GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR

## PHYSICS 70: Foundations of Modern Physics

Required for Physics or Engineering Physics majors who completed the
PHYSICS 40 series. Introduction to special relativity: reference frames, Michelson-Morley experiment. Postulates of relativity, simultaneity, time dilation. Length contraction, the Lorentz transformation, causality. Doppler effect. Relativistic mechanics and mass, energy, momentum relations. Introduction to quantum physics: atoms, electrons, nuclei. Quantization of light, Planck constant. Photoelectric effect, Compton and Bragg scattering. Bohr model, atomic spectra. Matter waves, wave packets, interference. Fourier analysis and transforms, Heisenberg uncertainty relationships. Schrödinger equation, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle-in-a-box, simple harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, tunneling, WKB and approximate solutions. Time-dependent and multi-dimensional solution concepts. Coulomb potential and hydrogen atom structure. Prerequisites:
PHYSICS 41,
PHYSICS 43. Pre or corequisite:
PHYSICS 45. Recommended: prior or concurrent registration in
MATH 53.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

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