## OSPSANTG 43: Structure and Shape: From the Colonial Past to the Present

Considering the architectural remnants of South America¿s colonial past, explore how elegant shapes such as arches, vaults and domes stem from structural considerations, the perfect marriage of beauty and function. Through the ages up to today¿s structures, which in Santiago are designed to withstand strong earthquakes. Basic ideas on strength of materials and structural mechanics. Lectures, hands-on experiments and designs, discussions, and visits to landmark structures.

Terms: Sum
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Lew, A. (PI)

## OSPSANTG 58: Living Chile: A Land of Extremes

Physical, ecological, and human geography of Chile. Perceptions of the Chilean territory and technologies of study. Flora, fauna, and human adaptations to regional environments. Guest lectures; field trips; workshops.

Terms: Spr, Sum
| Units: 5
| UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Reid, S. (PI)

## PHIL 165: Philosophy of Physics: Space, Time and Motion (PHIL 265)

Graduate students register for 265. The problem of absolute vs. relative motion from Descartes, Newton and Leibniz to Einstein and beyond. The principle of relativity: space and time to space-time. Mach¿s critique of Newton, his agenda to relativize inertia and its influence on Einstein in formulating the general theory of relativity. Space-time substantivalism and relationalism. The seeming conflict of determinism and general covariance in Einstein¿s Lochbetrachtung. ¿Background independence¿ as a requirement for fundamental physical theory.nNOTE:
Phil 165/265 alternates topics yearly between "Philosophical Issues in Quantum Mechanics" and "Philosophical Problems of Space, Time and Motion". The course may be repeated with a different subject matter. nnIn Winter 2017-18, the subject is ""Philosophical Issues in QM"nnI. TOPICS: After introducing a simplified version of Dirac's 'bra-ket' vector space formalism for the quantum state (a.k.a. function), the first third of the term is a historical overview of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, wave-particle duality, the problem of quantum measurement, and the non-classical nature of spin. We survey the treatment of these issues within Bohr's doctrine of complementarity and the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of QM. We review Einstein's several arguments for the incompleteness of QM, leading up to the famous EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paper of 1935, the resulting issue of quantum entanglement as discussed by Einstein and Schrödinger, and the complexities of Bohr's response to EPR. In the second third of the term, we examine a well-known 'no go' theorem on EPR-type experimental set-ups stemming from Bell in the 1960s, according to which no hidden variables theory satisfying a certain locality condition (apparently assumed by EPR) can reproduce all the predictions of QM. In the last third, we survey current variations of, or interpretive options for, standard QM: Bohmian mechanics (a.k.a. pilot wave theory), spontaneous collapse theories, and Everett's relative-state interpretation with its many worlds/ many minds variants. We end by scrutinizing the recent decoherence program (a.k.a.localization induced by the scattering of environmental particles) that purports to explain the quantum-to-classical transition, i.e., the emergence of the world of classical physics and macroscopic objects and properties from quantum physics. We consider whether decoherence is justifiably viewed as solving the quantum measurement problem. nnII. PREREQUISITES: No detailed knowledge of quantum physics or advanced mathematics is presumed. Some background in philosophy, natural science or mathematics will be helpful. Students will benefit from possession of a modicum of mathematical maturity (roughly equivalent to a familiarity with elementary single-variable calculus or the metatheory of first-order logic).

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-SMA
| Repeatable
for credit

Instructors:
Ryckman, T. (PI)
;
Zweber, A. (TA)

## PHYSICS 14N: Quantum Information: Visions and Emerging Technologies

What sets quantum information apart from its classical counterpart is that it can be encoded non-locally, woven into correlations among multiple qubits in a phenomenon known as entanglement. We will discuss paradigms for harnessing entanglement to solve hitherto intractable computational problems or to push the precision of sensors to their fundamental quantum mechanical limits. We will also examine challenges that physicists and engineers are tackling in the laboratory today to enable the quantum technologies of the future.

Last offered: Spring 2018
| UG Reqs: WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 15: Stars and Planets in a Habitable Universe

Is the Earth unique in our galaxy? Students learn how stars and our galaxy have evolved and how this produces planets and the conditions suitable for life. Discussion of the motion of the night sky and how telescopes collect and analyze light. The life-cycle of stars from birth to death, and the end products of that life cycle -- from dense stellar corpses to supernova explosions. Course covers recent discoveries of extrasolar planets -- those orbiting stars beyond our sun -- and the ultimate quest for other Earths. Intended to be accessible to non-science majors, material is explored quantitatively with problem sets using basic algebra and numerical estimates. Sky observing exercise and observatory field trips supplement the classroom work.

Terms: Aut, Sum
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Hubickyj, E. (PI)
;
Macintosh, B. (PI)
;
Chou, J. (TA)
...
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Instructors:
Hubickyj, E. (PI)
;
Macintosh, B. (PI)
;
Chou, J. (TA)
;
Eberhardt, A. (TA)
;
Lambert, S. (TA)
;
Madurowicz, A. (TA)

## PHYSICS 16: The Origin and Development of the Cosmos

How did the present Universe come to be? The last few decades have seen remarkable progress in understanding this age-old question. Course will cover the history of the Universe from its earliest moments to the present day, and the physical laws that govern its evolution. The early Universe including inflation and the creation of matter and the elements. Recent discoveries in our understanding of the makeup of the cosmos, including dark matter and dark energy. Evolution of galaxies, clusters, and quasars, and the Universe as a whole. Implications of dark matter and dark energy for the future evolution of the cosmos. Intended to be accessible to non-science majors, material is explored quantitatively with problem sets using basic algebra and numerical estimates.

Terms: Win, Sum
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Allafort, A. (PI)
;
Gill, M. (PI)
;
Wechsler, R. (PI)
...
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Instructors:
Allafort, A. (PI)
;
Gill, M. (PI)
;
Wechsler, R. (PI)
;
Eberhardt, A. (TA)
;
Maltz, J. (TA)
;
McLaughlin, S. (TA)
;
Nadler, E. (TA)

## PHYSICS 17: Black Holes and Extreme Astrophysics

Black holes represent an extreme frontier of astrophysics. Course will explore the most fundamental and universal force -- gravity -- and how it controls the fate of astrophysical objects, leading in some cases to black holes. How we discover and determine the properties of black holes and their environment. How black holes and their event horizons are used to guide thinking about mysterious phenomena such as Hawking radiation, wormholes, and quantum entanglement. How black holes generate gravitational waves and powerful jets of particles and radiation. Other extreme objects such as pulsars. Relevant physics, including relativity, is introduced and treated at the algebraic level. No prior physics or calculus is required, although some deep thinking about space, time, and matter is important in working through assigned problems.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Blandford, R. (PI)
;
Yu, C. (TA)

## PHYSICS 18N: Frontiers in Theoretical Physics and Cosmology

Preference to freshmen. The course will begin with a description of the current standard models of gravitation, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. We will then focus on frontiers of current understanding including investigations of very early universe cosmology, string theory, and the physics of black holes.

Terms: Win
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Kallosh, R. (PI)

## PHYSICS 19: How Things Work: An Introduction to Physics

Introduction to the principles of physics through familiar objects and phenomena, including airplanes, cameras, computers, engines, refrigerators, lightning, radio, microwave ovens, and fluorescent lights. Estimates of real quantities from simple calculations. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry.

Last offered: Autumn 2014
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 21: Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat

How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe phenomena as diverse as spinning gymnasts, blood flow, and sound waves. Understanding many-particle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and performance limits of heat engines. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problem-solving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Romani, R. (PI)
;
Mendoza Serrano, I. (TA)
;
Murli, D. (TA)
...
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Instructors:
Romani, R. (PI)
;
Mendoza Serrano, I. (TA)
;
Murli, D. (TA)
;
Shutty, N. (TA)
;
Sorce, J. (TA)

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