## PHYSICS 21: Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat

How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe diverse phenomena. Understanding many-particle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problem-solving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required. Autumn 2021-22: Class will be taught online synchronously in active learning format with much of the learning in smaller breakout rooms. This class will not be recorded. Please enroll in a section that you can attend regularly.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Nanavati, C. (PI)

## PHYSICS 22: Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat Laboratory

Guided hands-on exploration of concepts in classical mechanics, fluids, and thermodynamics with an emphasis on student predictions, observations and explanations. Pre- or corequisite:
PHYSICS 21.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Devin, J. (PI)

## PHYSICS 40: Vector and Mathematical Analysis for Mechanics

Physics 40 teaches fundamental math and physics concepts that are important for success in
Physics 41+ and engineering statics/dynamics. This class has a strong emphasis on physics problem solving schema and vector and mathematical analysis for geometry, forces, and motion. Students master both geometric and algebraic representations of vectors, resolving vectors into components, vector addition/subtraction, dot-products, cross-products, and derivatives. Through systematic practice, students translate between various representations, e.g. sketches, descriptions of a physical system, equations, graphs, and real systems (from various physics and engineering disciplines). Vector equations are used to generate scalar equations, which are then solved using analytical or easy-to-use online tools.
Physics 40 is an on-ramp to
Physics 41 for students with little high school physics. The minimum corequisite is
Math 20 (or equivalent). A permission number is required to enroll. Contact mitiguy@stanford.edu.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 2

Instructors:
Mitiguy, P. (PI)

## PHYSICS 41: Mechanics

How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on inte
more »

How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Autumn 2021-22: Class will be taught remote synchronously in active learning format with much of the learning in smaller breakout rooms. The class will not be recorded. Please enroll in a section that you can attend regularly. In order to register for this class students who have never taken an introductory Physics course at Stanford must complete the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Students who complete the Physics Placement Diagnostic by 3 PM (Pacific) on Friday will have their hold lifted over the weekend. Minimum prerequisites: High school physics and
MATH 20 (or high school calculus if sufficiently rigorous). Minimum co-requisite:
MATH 21 or equivalent. Since high school math classes vary widely, it is recommended that you take at least one math class at Stanford before or concurrently with taking
Physics 41. In addition, it is recommended that you take
Math 51 or
CME 100 before taking the next course in the
Physics 40 series,
Physics 43.

Terms: Aut, Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Graham, P. (PI)
;
Tompkins, L. (PI)

## PHYSICS 42: Classical Mechanics Laboratory

Hands-on exploration of concepts in classical mechanics: Newton's laws, conservation laws, rotational motion. Introduction to laboratory techniques, experimental equipment and data analysis. Pre- or corequisite:
PHYSICS 41.

Terms: Aut, Win
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Devin, J. (PI)

## PHYSICS 45: Light and Heat

What is temperature? How do the elementary processes of mechanics, which are intrinsically reversible, result in phenomena that are clearly irreversible when applied to a very large number of particles, the ultimate example being life? In thermodynamics, students discover that the approach of classical mechanics is not sufficient to deal with the extremely large number of particles present in a macroscopic amount of gas. The paradigm of thermodynamics leads to a deeper understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and the performance limits of thermal engines. In optics, students see how a geometrical approach allows the design of optical systems based on reflection and refraction, while the wave nature of light leads to interference phenomena. The two approaches come together in understanding the diffraction limit of microscopes and telescopes. Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction
more »

What is temperature? How do the elementary processes of mechanics, which are intrinsically reversible, result in phenomena that are clearly irreversible when applied to a very large number of particles, the ultimate example being life? In thermodynamics, students discover that the approach of classical mechanics is not sufficient to deal with the extremely large number of particles present in a macroscopic amount of gas. The paradigm of thermodynamics leads to a deeper understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and the performance limits of thermal engines. In optics, students see how a geometrical approach allows the design of optical systems based on reflection and refraction, while the wave nature of light leads to interference phenomena. The two approaches come together in understanding the diffraction limit of microscopes and telescopes. Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. In order to register for this class students must EITHER have already taken an introductory Physics class (20, 40, or 60 sequence) or have taken the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 41 or equivalent.
MATH 21 or
MATH 51 or
CME 100 or equivalent.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Bucksbaum, P. (PI)

## PHYSICS 46: Light and Heat Laboratory

Hands-on exploration of concepts in geometrical optics, wave optics and thermodynamics. Pre- or corequisite:
PHYSICS 45.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Devin, J. (PI)

## PHYSICS 59: Frontiers of Physics Research

Recommended for prospective Physics or Engineering Physics majors or anyone with an interest in learning about the big questions and unknowns that physicists tackle in their research at Stanford. Weekly faculty presentations, in some cases followed by tours of experimental laboratories where the research is conducted.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Shen, Z. (PI)

## PHYSICS 61: Mechanics and Special Relativity

(First in a three-part advanced freshman physics series:
PHYSICS 61,
PHYSICS 63,
PHYSICS 65.) This course covers Einstein's special theory of relativity and Newtonian mechanics at a level appropriate for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Postulates of special relativity, simultaneity, time dilation, length contraction, the Lorentz transformation, causality, and relativistic mechanics. Central forces, contact forces, linear restoring forces. Momentum transport, work, energy, collisions. Angular momentum, torque, moment of inertia in three dimensions. Damped and forced harmonic oscillators. Uses the language of vectors and multivariable calculus. In order to register for this class students must EITHER have already taken an introductory Physics class (20, 40, or 60 sequence) or have taken the Physics Placement Diagnostic at
https://physics.stanford.edu/academics/undergraduate-students/placement-diagnostic. Recommended prerequisites: Mastery of mechanics at the level of AP Physics C and AP Calculus BC or equivalent. Corequisite:
MATH 51 or
MATH 61CM or
MATH 61DM.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, WAY-FR

Instructors:
Burchat, P. (PI)

## PHYSICS 62: Mechanics Laboratory

Introduction to laboratory techniques, experiment design, data collection and analysis simulations, and correlating observations with theory. Labs emphasize discovery with open-ended questions and hands-on exploration of concepts developed in
PHYSICS 61 including Newton's laws, conservation laws, rotational motion. Pre-or corequisite
PHYSICS 61

Terms: Aut
| Units: 1

Instructors:
Devin, J. (PI)

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