## PHYSICS 65: Quantum and Thermal Physics

(Third in a three-part advanced freshman physics series:
PHYSICS 61,
PHYSICS 63,
PHYSICS 65.) This course introduces the foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Quantum mechanics: atoms, electrons, nuclei. Quantization of light, Planck's constant. Photoelectric effect, Compton and Bragg scattering. Bohr model, atomic spectra. Matter waves, wave packets, interference. Fourier analysis and transforms, Heisenberg uncertainty relationships. Schrödinger equation, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle-in-a-box, simple harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, tunneling, WKB and approximate solutions. Time-dependent and multi-dimensional solution concepts. Coulomb potential and hydrogen atom structure. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics: ideal gas, equipartition, heat capacity. Probability, counting states, entropy, equilibrium, chemical potential. Laws of thermodynamics. Cycles, heat engines, free energy. Partition function, Boltzmann statistics, Maxwell speed distribution, ideal gas in a box, Einstein model. Quantum statistical mechanics: classical vs. quantum distribution functions, fermions vs. bosons. Prerequisites:
PHYSICS 61 &
PHYSICS 63. Pre- or corequisite:
MATH 53 or
MATH 63CM or
MATH 63DM.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 70: Foundations of Modern Physics

Required for Physics or Engineering Physics majors who completed the
PHYSICS 40 series. Introduction to special relativity: reference frames, Michelson-Morley experiment. Postulates of relativity, simultaneity, time dilation. Length contraction, the Lorentz transformation, causality. Doppler effect. Relativistic mechanics and mass, energy, momentum relations. Introduction to quantum physics: atoms, electrons, nuclei. Quantization of light, Planck constant. Photoelectric effect, Compton and Bragg scattering. Bohr model, atomic spectra. Matter waves, wave packets, interference. Fourier analysis and transforms, Heisenberg uncertainty relationships. Schrödinger equation, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle-in-a-box, simple harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, tunneling, WKB and approximate solutions. Time-dependent and multi-dimensional solution concepts. Coulomb potential and hydrogen atom structure. Prerequisites:
PHYSICS 41,
PHYSICS 43. Pre or corequisite:
PHYSICS 45. Recommended: prior or concurrent registration in
MATH 53.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 83N: Physics in the 21st Century

Preference to freshmen. Current topics at the frontier of modern physics. This course provides an in-depth examination of two of the biggest physics discoveries of the 21st century: that of the Higgs boson and Dark Energy. Through studying these discoveries we will explore the big questions driving modern particle physics, the study of nature's most fundamental pieces, and cosmology, the study of the evolution and nature of the universe. Questions such as: What is the universe made of? What are the most fundamental particles and how do they interact with each other? What can we learn about the history of the universe and what does it tell us about it's future? We will learn about the tools scientists use to study these questions such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Hubble Space Telescope. We will also learn to convey these complex topics in engaging and diverse terms to the general public through writing and reading assignments, oral presentations, and multimedia projects. The syllabus includes a tour of SLAC, the site of many major 20th century particle discoveries, and a virtual visit of the control room of the ATLAS experiment at CERN amongst other activities. No prior knowledge of physics is necessary; all voices are welcome to contribute to the discussion about these big ideas. Learning Goals: By the end of the quarter you will be able to explain the major questions that drive particle physics and cosmology to your friends and peers. You will understand how scientists study the impossibly small and impossibly large and be able to convey this knowledge in clear and concise terms.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 3
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Tompkins, L. (PI)

## PHYSICS 95Q: The Philosophies of Three Great Physicists

Richard Feynman has famously said, Philosophy of science is about as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds. A closer look at key moments in the history of physics, however, reveals a different picture. Contrary to the misconception that philosophy has nothing to offer to science in general, and physics in particular, watershed moments in the development of physics were inspired and motivated by deeply held philosophical principles. Similarly, important developments in physics have generated important and difficult philosophical questions. In this sophomore seminar we will explore three significant moments in the development of physics surrounding the works of Newton, Einstein, and Bohr. We will analyze the relationship between the prevailing philosophical views they espoused and the physics they produced. How did Newton come to the view of absolute and fixed space and time? What led Einstein to reject the notion of a fixed space and time and propose a relativistic, and even dynamic space-time? What is Bohr's influential doctrine of complementary, and why did several generations of physicists believe it to be an adequate philosophical response to quantum mechanics? We will see that the relationship between philosophy and physics is more similar to the relationship between mathematics and physics where progress in one area is often preceded and followed by progress in the second.

Last offered: Winter 2017
| UG Reqs: WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 100: Introduction to Observational Astrophysics

Designed for undergraduate physics majors but open to all students with a calculus-based physics background and some laboratory and coding experience. Students make and analyze observations using the telescopes at the Stanford Student Observatory. Topics covered include navigating the night sky, the physics of stars and galaxies, telescope instrumentation and operation, imaging and spectroscopic techniques, quantitative error analysis, and effective scientific communication. The course concludes with an independent project where student teams propose and execute an observational astronomy project of their choosing, using techniques learned in class to gather and analyze their data, and presenting their findings in the forms of professional-style oral presentations and research papers. Enrollment by permission. To get a permission number please complete form:
http://web.stanford.edu/~elva/physics100prelim.fb If you have not heard from us by the beginning of class, please come to the first class session.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 105: Intermediate Physics Laboratory I: Analog Electronics

Analog electronics including Ohm's law, passive circuits and transistor and op amp circuits, emphasizing practical circuit design skills to prepare undergraduates for laboratory research. Short design project. Minimal use of math and physics, no electronics experience assumed beyond introductory physics. Prerequisite:
PHYSICS 43 or
PHYSICS 63.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 107: Intermediate Physics Laboratory II: Experimental Techniques and Data Analysis

Experiments on lasers, Gaussian optics, and atom-light interaction, with emphasis on data and error analysis techniques. Students describe a subset of experiments in scientific paper format. Prerequisites: completion of
PHYSICS 40 or
PHYSICS 60 series, and
PHYSICS 70 and
PHYSICS 105. Recommended pre- or corequisites:
PHYSICS 120 and 130. WIM

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 108: Advanced Physics Laboratory: Project

Have you ever gotten to come up with a scientific question you'd like to explore, then worked with a small group to plan, design, build, and carry out an experiment to pursue this? Most projects pursued (drawn from condensed matter or particle physics) have never before been done in the class. This is an accelerated, guided "simulation" of real frontier experimental research. We provide substantial resources to help your team. Prerequisites
PHYSICS 105,
PHYSICS 107.
PHYSICS 130 preferred.

Terms: Spr
| Units: 5
| UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Instructors:
Goldhaber-Gordon, D. (PI)
;
Holland, C. (TA)

## PHYSICS 110: Advanced Mechanics (PHYSICS 210)

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. Principle of least action, Euler-Lagrange equations. Small oscillations and beyond. Symmetries, canonical transformations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, action-angle variables. Introduction to classical field theory. Selected other topics, including nonlinear dynamical systems, attractors, chaotic motion. Undergraduates register for
Physics 110 (4 units). Graduates register for
Physics 210 (3 units). Prerequisites:
MATH 131P or
PHYSICS 111, and
PHYSICS 112 or MATH elective 104 or higher. Recommended prerequisite:
PHYSICS 130.

Terms: Aut
| Units: 3-4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

## PHYSICS 120: Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism I

Vector analysis. Electrostatic fields, including boundary-value problems and multipole expansion. Dielectrics, static and variable magnetic fields, magnetic materials. Maxwell's equations. Prerequisites:
PHYSICS 43 or PHYS 63;
MATH 52 and
MATH 53. Pre- or corequisite: PHYS 111,
MATH 131P or
MATH 173. Recommended corequisite: PHYS 112.

Terms: Win
| Units: 4
| UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA

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