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PHIL 1: Introduction to Philosophy

Is there one truth or many? Does science tell us everything there is to know? Can our minds be purely physical? Do we have free will? Is faith rational? Should we always be rational? What is the meaning of life? Are there moral truths? What are truth, reality, rationality, and knowledge? How can such questions be answered? Intensive introduction to theories and techniques in philosophy from various contemporary traditions. Students must enroll in lecture AND and one of the discussion sections listed.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

PHIL 2: Introduction to Moral Philosophy (ETHICSOC 20)

What should I do with my life? What kind of person should I be? How should we treat others? What makes actions right or wrong? What is good and what is bad? What should we value? How should we organize society? Is there any reason to be moral? Is morality relative or subjective? How, if at all, can such questions be answered? Intensive introduction to theories and techniques in contemporary moral philosophy.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, GER:EC-EthicReas, WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Maguire, B. (PI)

PHIL 3N: Randomness: Computational and Philosophical Approaches (CS 57N)

Is it ever reasonable to make a decision randomly? For example, would you ever let an important choice depend on the flip of a coin? Can randomness help us answer difficult questions more accurately or more efficiently? What is randomness anyway? Can an object be random? Are there genuinely random processes in the world, and if so, how can we tell? In this seminar, we will explore these questions through the lenses of philosophy and computation. By the end of the quarter students should have an appreciation of the many roles that randomness plays in both humanities and sciences, as well as a grasp of some of the key analytical tools used to study the concept. The course will be self-contained, and no prior experience with randomness/probability is necessary.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 4N: Knowing Nothing

Our beliefs are subject to multiple sources of error: a traveler's perception of an oasis in the desert may turn out to be a mirage; the key witness in a trial criminal may turn out to be lying; or a fluke in the data may mislead a research team into believing a false hypothesis; or a miscalculating math student may end up with the wrong answer. Philosophers often characterize knowledge as belief that is safe from error--but is knowledge possible? This course uses the philosophical arguments and thought experiments to assess the question of how much we can hope to know.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Briggs, R. (PI)

PHIL 13: Humanities Core: Great Books, Big Ideas -- Europe, Modern (DLCL 13, FRENCH 13, HISTORY 239C, HUMCORE 13)

This three-quarter sequence asks big questions of major texts in the European and American tradition. What is a good life? How should society be organized? Who belongs? How should honor, love, sin, and similar abstractions govern our actions? What duty do we owe to the past and future? This third and final quarter focuses on the modern period, from the rise of revolutionary ideas to the experiences of totalitarianism and decolonization in the twentieth century. Authors include Locke, Mary Shelley, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Weber, Primo Levi, and Frantz Fanon.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 20N: Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

Is it really possible for an artificial system to achieve genuine intelligence: thoughts, consciousness, emotions? What would that mean? How could we know if it had been achieved? Is there a chance that we ourselves are artificial intelligences? Would artificial intelligences, under certain conditions, actually be persons? If so, how would that affect how they ought to be treated and what ought to be expected of them? Emerging technologies with impressive capacities already seem to function in ways we do not fully understand. What are the opportunities and dangers that this presents? How should the promises and hazards of these technologies be managed?nnPhilosophers have studied questions much like these for millennia, in scholarly debates that have increased in fervor with advances in psychology, neuroscience, and computer science. The philosophy of mind provides tools to carefully address whether genuine artificial intelligence and artificial personhood are possible. Epistemology (the philosophy of knowledge) helps us ponder how we might be able to know. Ethics provides concepts and theories to explore how all of this might bear on what ought to be done. We will read philosophical writings in these areas as well as writings explicitly addressing the questions about artificial intelligence, hoping for a deep and clear understanding of the difficult philosophical challenges the topic presents.nnNo background in any of this is presupposed, and you will emerge from the class having made a good start learning about computational technologies as well as a number of fields of philosophical thinking. It will also be a good opportunity to develop your skills in discussing and writing critically about complex issues.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Etchemendy, J. (PI)

PHIL 21N: Ethics of Sports (ETHICSOC 121N)

This seminar will be focused on the ethical challenges that are encountered in sport. We will focus on the moral and political issues that affect the world of sport and which athletes, coaches, sports commentators and fans are faced with. For instance, we will ask questions such as: what is a fair game (the ethics of effort, merit, success)? Is it ethical to train people to use violence (the ethics of martial arts)? Are divisions by gender categories justified and what should we think of gender testing? Is the use of animals in sport ever justified? Which forms of performance enhancements are acceptable in sport (the ethics of drug use and enhancements through technologies)? Should we ban sports that damage the players¿ health? Does society owe social support to people who hurt themselves while practicing extreme sports? nnThe class will be structured around small group discussions and exercises as well as brief lectures to introduce key moral and political concepts (such as fairness, equality, freedom, justice, exploitation, etc.). I will also bring guests speakers who are involved in a sport activity at Stanford or who have worked on sports as part of their academic careers. By the end of the seminar, students will have a good understanding of the various ethical challenges that surround the world of sport. They will be able to critically discuss sport activities, norms, modes of assessments and policies (on campus and beyond). They will also be prepared to apply the critical ethical thinking that they will have deployed onto other topics than sports. They will have been introduced to the normative approach to social issues, which consists in asking how things should be rather than describing how things are. They will be prepared to take more advanced classes in ethics, political theory, as well as moral and political philosophy.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Bidadanure, J. (PI)

PHIL 21S: Happiness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

What is happiness and how do we attain it? Considerations about happiness played a central role for Greek philosophers in answering questions like, How should I live my life? and, Why should I be a good person? This course is an introduction to the prominent writers and major schools of ancient Greek philosophy, including Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, and the Epicureans. In addition to considering ethical questions about how to act, we also consider closely related questions about how to know the good and whether there is such a thing as human nature. While the course focuses on ancient texts, we shall also consider related arguments made in contemporary ethics.
Terms: Sum | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 23S: Philosophy as Freedom

Philosophizing, if done correctly, can be life-changing: new ideas can change the way we think about, look at, interact, engage and deal with the world around us. New ideas can bring out problems that we could not even see as problems before; they can change our conception of how and why we are to live the lives in the way we think we should; they can change our relations with other individuals who either share or do not share the ideas that we have newly come to acquire. The aim of this course is a philosophical exploration of some of the ideas that have shaped and are currently shaping our world today, and what that means for our evolving understanding of freedom, to be "purely at home with ourselves."
Terms: Sum | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 24F: Tutorial: Morality and its Critics

What is morality? Why be moral? This course will cover some seminal ideas in ethics from the last 75 years, aimed in one way or another toward these and related questions. Each week we will read a paper widely regarded as a contemporary classic and carefully work through and discuss its arguments, with an aim at locating its broader significance in shaping the landscape of contemporary ethics in (broadly) analytic philosophy. An underlying theme of the course is whether or how morality (including, but not limited to, what we owe to each other) is related to ethics (How should I live?) and practical reason (What should I do?)
Terms: Aut | Units: 2 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Madigan, T. (PI)

PHIL 24G: Introduction to Animal Ethics (ETHICSOC 124G)

In this introductory course we will engage in an interdisciplinary discussion about the theoretical and applied aspects of animal rights and the ethical treatment of animals. This course will be of interest to a wide range of students: philosophers, political scientists, ecologists, environmental scientists, and biologists. Throughout the course we will focus on the following questions: Do non-human animals have moral status and do we have moral obligations toward them? If so, what grounds the moral status of animals? Are some animals `persons¿? Do we have the right to eat and farm animals, use them in scientific and cosmetic experiments, display them in zoos and circuses, and keep them as pets? Under what circumstances would these actions be permissible, if at all? Was animal domestication a mistake? Basic familiarity with ethical theory (such as covered by PHIL2) is recommended.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lenczewska, O. (PI)

PHIL 24H: Tutorial: Philosophical Perspectives on Climate Change

Climate change threatens to destroy almost everything we find valuable. As such, it requires thorough philosophical investigation. In this course we'll look at the topic from several philosophical angles. The goal is to go for breadth rather depth: there are many issues to discuss about climate change and we'll try to see the big picture by getting snapshots of a diverse array of issues.nWe'll start by looking at two issues from the philosophy of science: the role of values in climate science and whether a scientist's values should play into her research. We'll also look at the role of bewilderingly complex computer simulations in climate research. We'll ask about the epistemic status of these methods: do they constitute some kind of high-powered way of making observations? Or are they more like hypothetical experiments? Or do they constitute a totally new way of doing science, akin to the introduction of Baconian experimental methods? nNext we'll examine questions closer to metaethics about the intrinsic value of nature. We'll address whether various aspects of nature are valuable in themselves or valuable only insofar as they affect humans. In the interest of time, we'll only look at two of the most extreme views: Deep Ecology, according to which ecosystems are intrinsically valuable, and Anthropocentrism. nMost of the course will be spent addressing questions about how to respond to climate change. We'll discuss: 1) the nature of the problem 2) our obligations, if any, to future generations 3) the pros and cons of policies that aim to mitigate climate change versus those that aim to adapt to it and 4) what we as individuals should do: whether we should be vegans, destroy our cars, or just stop thinking about the issue all together.
Terms: Win | Units: 2 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Zweber, A. (PI)

PHIL 36: Dangerous Ideas (ARTHIST 36, COMPLIT 36A, EALC 36, ENGLISH 71, ETHICSOC 36X, FRENCH 36, HISTORY 3D, MUSIC 36H, POLISCI 70, SLAVIC 36)

Ideas matter. Concepts such as race, progress, and equality have inspired social movements, shaped political systems, and dramatically influenced the lives of individuals. Others, like gender identity, universal basic income, and historical memory play an important role in contemporary debates in the United States. All of these ideas are contested, and they have a real power to change lives, for better and for worse. In this one-unit class we will examine these dangerous ideas. Each week, a faculty member from a different department in the humanities and arts will explore a concept that has shaped human experience across time and space. Some weeks will have short reading assignments, but you are not required to purchase any materials.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Anderson, R. (PI)

PHIL 38S: Introduction to the Philosophy of the Mind

Could people in the future upload their conscious minds to a computer and, so to speak, live forever? Do we have an obligation not to delete a conscious computer's software? How we answer these questions would seem to depend on how we answer more basic questions. Can a machine have thoughts? Can a rock have thoughts? Would a machine with thoughts have consciousness? Even these simpler questions are difficult and controversial. In this course, we will each examine our own ideas about the mind and consciousness, and compare our ideas with those of other philosophers. We will consider different ways in which minds, consciousness, and the physical world might be related to each other. We will do this by thinking both about our own minds and experiences, and about how representations of the world might (or might not) exist within brains or computers.
Terms: Sum | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 39S: Introduction to Ethics

Construed broadly, ethics encompasses questions about moral truth, objectivity, and relativity; questions about what reasons we have to persist in acting morally; and questions about morality's substance or content. Some examples: Are moral claims mere matters of opinion? Is morality relative? If there are objective moral facts, what are they like, and how can we know them? Can we argue an avowed amoralist into caring about morality? If so, on what basis? What is morality telling us to do, anyway? In this course, we will make a preliminary investigation of these questions and of some important historical and contemporary attempts to answer them. We will also look at some possible sources for skepticism about morality: What if we are, in the end, wholly selfish animals? What if the correct account of the origins of our moral beliefs ends up undermining them? Does the role of luck in our lives undercut our basic notion of ourselves as responsible for our actions? More generally, is moral enterprise hopeless if nature's course is settled in advance?
Terms: Sum | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 49: Survey of Formal Methods

Survey of important formal methods used in philosophy. The course covers the basics of propositional and elementary predicate logic, probability and decision theory, game theory, and statistics, highlighting philosophical issues and applications. Specific topics include the languages of propositional and predicate logic and their interpretations, rationality arguments for the probability axioms, Nash equilibrium and dominance reasoning, and the meaning of statistical significance tests. Assessment is through a combination of problems designed to solidify competence with the mathematical tools and short-answer questions designed to test conceptual understanding.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Chipman, J. (PI)

PHIL 60: Introduction to Philosophy of Science (HPS 60, STS 200S)

This course introduces students to tools for the philosophical analysis of science. We will cover issues in observation, experiment, and reasoning, questions about the aims of science, scientific change, and the relations between science and values. STS majors cannot take STS 200S if they have previously taken PHIL 60. Priority is given to STS seniors.
Terms: Aut | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 61: Philosophy and the Scientific Revolution (HPS 61)

Galileo's defense of the Copernican world-system that initiated the scientific revolution of the 17th century, led to conflict between science and religion, and influenced the development of modern philosophy. Readings focus on Galileo and Descartes.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Friedman, M. (PI)

PHIL 72: Contemporary Moral Problems (ETHICSOC 185M, POLISCI 134P)

This course is an introduction to contemporary ethical thought with a focus on the morality of harming others and saving others from harm. It aims to develop students' ability to think carefully and rationally about moral issues, to acquaint them with modern moral theory, and to encourage them to develop their own considered positions about important real-world issues. In the first part of the course, we will explore fundamental topics in the ethics of harm. Among other questions, we will ask: How extensive are one's moral duties to improve the lives of the less fortunate? When is it permissible to inflict harm on others for the sake of the greater good? Does the moral permissibility of a person's action depend on her intentions? Can a person be harmed by being brought into existence? In the second part of the course, we will turn to practical questions. Some of these will be familiar; for example: Is abortion morally permissible? What obligations do we have to protect the planet for the sake of future generations? Other questions we will ask are newer and less well-trodden. These will include: How does the availability of new technology, in particular artificial intelligence, change the moral landscape of the ethics of war? What moral principles should govern the programming and operation of autonomous vehicles?
Terms: Win | Units: 4-5 | UG Reqs: GER:EC-EthicReas, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Karhu, T. (PI)

PHIL 74A: Ethics in a Human Life (ETHICSOC 174, HUMBIO 174A)

Ethical questions pervade a human life from before a person is conceived until after she dies, and at every point in between. This course raises a series of ethical questions, following along the path of a person's life - questions that arise before, during, and after she lives it. We will explore distinctive questions that a life presents at each of several familiar stages: prior to birth, childhood, adulthood, death, and even beyond. We will consider how some philosophers have tried to answer these questions, and we will think about how answering them might help us form a better understanding of the ethical shape of a human life as a whole.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dannenberg, J. (PI)

PHIL 76: Introduction to Global Justice (ETHICSOC 136R, INTNLREL 136R, POLISCI 136R, POLISCI 336)

This course explores the normative demands and definitions of justice that transcend the nation-state and its borders, through the lenses of political justice, economic justice, and human rights. What are our duties (if any) towards those who live in other countries? Should we be held morally responsible for their suffering? What if we have contributed to it? Should we be asked to remedy it? At what cost? These are some of the questions driving the course. Although rooted in political theory and philosophy, the course will examine contemporary problems that have been addressed by other scholarly disciplines, public debates, and popular media, such as immigration and open borders, climate change refugees, and the morality of global capitalism (from exploitative labor to blood diamonds). As such, readings will combine canonical pieces of political theory and philosophy with readings from other scholarly disciplines, newspaper articles, and popular media.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, GER:EC-EthicReas, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 80: Mind, Matter, and Meaning

Intensive study of central topics in metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of language and mind in preparation for advanced courses in philosophy. Emphasis on development of analytical writing skills. Prerequisite: one prior course in Philosophy or permission of instructor.
Terms: Win, Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

PHIL 81: Philosophy and Literature (CLASSICS 42, COMPLIT 181, ENGLISH 81, FRENCH 181, GERMAN 181, ILAC 181, ITALIAN 181, SLAVIC 181)

What, if anything, does reading literature do for our lives? What can literature offer that other forms of writing cannot? Can fictions teach us anything? Can they make people more moral? Why do we take pleasure in tragic stories? This course introduces students to major problems at the intersection of philosophy and literature. It addresses key questions about the value of literature, philosophical puzzles about the nature of fiction and literary language, and ways that philosophy and literature interact. Readings span literature, film, and philosophical theories of art. Authors may include Sophocles, Dickinson, Toni Morrison, Proust, Woolf, Walton, Nietzsche, and Sartre. Students master close reading techniques and philosophical analysis, and write papers combining the two. This is the required gateway course for the Philosophy and Literature major tracks. Majors should register in their home department.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 82: Ethics, Public Policy, and Technological Change (COMM 180, CS 182, ETHICSOC 182, POLISCI 182, PUBLPOL 182)

Examination of recent developments in computing technology and platforms through the lenses of philosophy, public policy, social science, and engineering. Course is organized around four main units: algorithmic decision-making and bias; data privacy and civil liberties; artificial intelligence and autonomous systems; and the power of private computing platforms. Each unit considers the promise, perils, rights, and responsibilities at play in technological developments. Prerequisite: CS106A.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 87: Personal Identity

Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Perry, J. (PI)

PHIL 99: Minds and Machines (LINGUIST 35, PSYCH 35, SYMSYS 1, SYMSYS 200)

(Formerly SYMSYS 100). An overview of the interdisciplinary study of cognition, information, communication, and language, with an emphasis on foundational issues: What are minds? What is computation? What are rationality and intelligence? Can we predict human behavior? Can computers be truly intelligent? How do people and technology interact, and how might they do so in the future? Lectures focus on how the methods of philosophy, mathematics, empirical research, and computational modeling are used to study minds and machines. Undergraduates considering a major in symbolic systems should take this course as early as possible in their program of study.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lassiter, D. (PI)

PHIL 100: Greek Philosophy (CLASSICS 40)

We shall cover the major developments in Greek philosophical thought, focusing on Plato, Aristotle, and the Hellenistic schools (the Epicureans, the Stoics, and the Skeptics). Topics include epistemology, metaphysics, psychology, ethics and political theory. No prereqs, not repeatable.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 101A: History of Philosophy from Al-Kindi to Averroes (GLOBAL 139)

The rise of Islam saw a flourishing of philosophical and scientific activity across Islamic civilizations from Central Asia to Spain. Between the 7th to 13th centuries, many of the major philosophers in the history of philosophy lived in the Muslim world and wrote in Arabic. They saw themselves, just as later philosophers in medieval Europe, as working in part in the same tradition as Plato and Aristotle. This course surveys this important chapter in the history of philosophy, examining the key philosophical problems, analyses, arguments and ideas developed by philosophers such as Al-Kindi, Al-Razi, Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Al-Ghazali and Averroes, as well as their views on the role and aims of philosophy itself. We will look closely at their writings (in English translation) on philosophical topics in mind, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and politics.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Al-Witri, Z. (PI)

PHIL 102: Modern Philosophy, Descartes to Kant

Major figures in early modern philosophy in epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. Writings by Descartes, Leibniz, Hume, and Kant.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; De Pierris, G. (PI)

PHIL 107B: Plato's Later Metaphysics and Epistemology (PHIL 207B)

A close reading of Plato's Theatetus and Parmenides, his two mature dialogues on the topics of knowledge and reality. We will consider various definitions of knowledge, metaphysical problems about the objects of knowledge, and a proposed method for examining and resolving such problems. Some background in ancient Greek philosophy and/or contemporary metaphysics and epistemology is preferred, but not required. Prerequisite: Phil 80.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 108: Aristotle's Metaphysics Book Alpha (PHIL 208)

An introduction both to Aristotle's own metaphysics and to his treatment of his predecessors on causality, included the early Ionian cosmologists, atomism, Pythagoreans, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Plato. Prerequisite: one course in ancient Greek philosophy.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 108B: Aristotle's Physics Book One (PHIL 208B)

A chapter by chapter analysis of Aristotle's introductory discussions of physical theory. Topics to be considered include Aristotle's treatment of Eleatic monism, the role of opposites in pre-Socratic physics, the role of matter in physics, and an analysis of the elements of changing objects into form, privation and a subject.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 110: Plato's Republic (PHIL 210)

The Republic is one most famous and influential texts in the history of Western philosophy. We shall read in its entirety closely (along with some other related Platonic texts) focusing on its epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, philosophy of art, and political philosophy.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Irwin, T. (PI)

PHIL 115: PreSocratics (PHIL 215)

Exploration of the Greek philosophical inquiry undertaken in the roughly two hundred years before Socrates. This Presocratic period saw vibrant and varied treatment of a wide range of areas, including physics, metaphysics, epistemology, cosmology, theology, biology, and ethics. We will proceed chronologically through the major Presocratic philosophers and schools, carefully examining the fragmentary evidence on each and discussing the interpretation of their doctrines from this evidence. Focus will be on the Presocratics in their own right, though their influence upon later thought, especially Plato and Aristotle, will also receive considerable attention. Consideration of how the ideas of the Presocratics were transmitted and manipulated in the ancient tradition, as well as of the nature and development of Western philosophy itself.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Pinto, R. (PI)

PHIL 117: Descartes (PHIL 217)

(Formerly 121/221.) Descartes's philosophical writings on rules for the direction of the mind, method, innate ideas and ideas of the senses, mind, God, eternal truths, and the material world.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; De Pierris, G. (PI)

PHIL 121: History of Political Philosophy (ETHICSOC 121, PHIL 221)

Nation-states issue legal commands, and wield overwhelming power to coercively enforce them. On one hand, this allows states to protect people from each other. On the other hand, what protects people from the state, even if is democratic, when it facilitates domination and oppression of some citizens by others? In this course we are introduced to authors grappling with these issues in the evolving canon of Western political philosophy from ancient Greece to the 20th century. This takes us through questions about obligation, the state, consent, rights, democracy, property, free speech, socialism, gender, race. Authors whose arguments we will study and scrutinize include Plato, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Marx, Mill, Wollstonecraft, Douglass, and Rawls, along with critics and commentators.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 125: Kant's First Critique (PHIL 225)

(Graduate students register for 225.) The founding work of Kant's critical philosophy emphasizing his contributions to metaphysics and epistemology. His attempts to limit metaphysics to the objects of experience. Prerequisite: course dealing with systematic issues in metaphysics or epistemology, or with the history of modern philosophy.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Friedman, M. (PI)

PHIL 132: Phenomenology: Merleau-Ponty (PHIL 232)

(Graduate students register for 232.) French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that we are neither angels nor machines but living beings. In contrast to both a first person introspective analysis and the third person scientific approach, Merleau-Ponty aimed to describe the basic invariant structures of human life by using the phenomenological method. The result was a new concept of experience that is essentially embodied. In this class, you will learn about the phenomenological method and read Merleau-Ponty¿s now classic text Phenomenology of Perception. Prerequisite: one prior course in Philosophy, or permission of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jackson, G. (PI)

PHIL 133S: Heidegger and Mysticism (RELIGST 181)

A close reading of Heidegger's Being and Time in light of the new paradigm for reading his work, as well as a study of his long-standing interest in mysticism and the question of the divine.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-A-II | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 134: Phenomenology: Husserl (PHIL 234)

(Graduate students register for 234.) Prerequisite: one prior course in philosophy, or permission of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jackson, G. (PI)

PHIL 135X: Citizenship (ETHICSOC 135, POLISCI 135)

This class begins from the core definition of citizenship as membership in a political community and explores the many debates about what that membership means. Who is (or ought to be) a citizen? Who gets to decide? What responsibilities come with citizenship? Is being a citizen analogous to being a friend, a family member, a business partner? How can citizenship be gained, and can it ever be lost? These debates figure in the earliest recorded political philosophy but also animate contemporary political debates. This class uses ancient, medieval, and modern texts to examine these questions and different answers given over time. We¿Äôll pay particular attention to understandings of democratic citizenship but look at non-democratic citizenship as well. Students will develop and defend their own views on these questions, using the class texts as foundations. No experience with political philosophy is required or expected, and students can expect to learn or hone the skills (writing / reading / analysis) of political philosophy.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER, WAY-SI | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Coyne, B. (PI); Oh, E. (TA)

PHIL 137: Wittgenstein (PHIL 237)

(Graduate students register for 237.) An exploration of Wittgenstein's changing views about meaning, mind, knowledge, and the nature of philosophical perplexity and philosophical insight, focusing on the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 137X: Wittgenstein

An exploration of Wittgenstein's changing views about meaning, mind, knowledge, and the nature of philosophical perplexity and philosophical insight, focusing on the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations. By permission of instructor only.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 150: Mathematical Logic (PHIL 250)

An introduction to the concepts and techniques used in mathematical logic, focusing on propositional, modal, and predicate logic. Highlights connections with philosophy, mathematics, computer science, linguistics, and neighboring fields.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 151: Metalogic (PHIL 251)

(Formerly 160A.) The syntax and semantics of sentential and first-order logic. Concepts of model theory. Gödel's completeness theorem and its consequences: the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and the compactness theorem. Prerequisite: 150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Icard, T. (PI)

PHIL 152: Computability and Logic (PHIL 252)

Approaches to effective computation: recursive functions, register machines, and Turing machines. Proof of their equivalence, discussion of Church's thesis. Elementary recursion theory. These techniques used to prove Gödel's incompleteness theorem for arithmetic, whose technical and philosophical repercussions are surveyed. Prerequisite: 151.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sommer, R. (PI)

PHIL 154: Modal Logic (PHIL 254)

(Graduate students register for 254.) Syntax and semantics of modal logic and its basic theory: including expressive power, axiomatic completeness, correspondence, and complexity. Applications to topics in philosophy, computer science, mathematics, linguistics, and game theory. Prerequisite: 150 or preferably 151.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; van Benthem, J. (PI)

PHIL 155: Topics in Mathematical Logic: Non-Classical Logic (PHIL 255)

This year's topic is Non-Classical Logic. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Briggs, R. (PI)

PHIL 162: Philosophy of Mathematics (PHIL 262)

Prerequisite: PHIL150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Warren, J. (PI)

PHIL 165: Philosophy of Physics: Quantum Mechanics (PHIL 265)

Graduate students register for 265.nnPREREQUISITES: No detailed knowledge of quantum physics or advanced mathematics is presumed. Some background in philosophy, natural science or mathematics will be helpful. Students will benefit from possession of a modicum of mathematical maturity (roughly equivalent to a familiarity with elementary single-variable calculus or the metatheory of first-order logic).
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-SMA | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 167D: Philosophy of Neuroscience (PHIL 267D, SYMSYS 167D)

How can we explain the mind? With approaches ranging from computational models to cellular-level characterizations of neural responses to the characterization of behavior, neuroscience aims to explain how we see, think, decide, and even feel. While these approaches have been highly successful in answering some kinds of questions, they have resulted in surprisingly little progress in others. We'll look at the relationships between the neuroscientific enterprise, philosophical investigations of the nature of the mind, and our everyday experiences as creatures with minds. Prerequisite: PHIL 80.n(Not open to freshmen.)
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI)

PHIL 170: Ethical Theory (ETHICSOC 170, PHIL 270)

This course serves as a rigorous introduction to moral philosophy for students with little or no background. We will examine ideas from four important figures in moral thought: Plato, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. Each of these philosophers played an integral role in the development of moral philosophy, because each offers thoughtful, compelling answers to some of the discipline¿s most central questions. These questions include: What is involved in being a good person or living a good life? What should we value, and why? How are we motivated by morality? How (if at all) is morality a matter of what is customary or conventional? How (much) do the consequences of our actions matter? Importantly, this course is not only about learning what others have thought about the answers to these (and related) questions. By considering and criticizing the ideas and arguments of these philosophers, the aim is to cultivate our own ability to think systematically, rationally, and reflectively, and to make up our own minds about how to answer these kinds of questions.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, GER:EC-EthicReas, WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dannenberg, J. (PI)

PHIL 170B: Metaphor (PHIL 270B)

In metaphor we think and talk about two things at once: two different subject matters are mingled to rich and unpredictable effect. A close critical study of the main modern accounts of metaphor's nature and interest, drawing on the work of writers, linguists, philosophers, and literary critics. Attention to how understanding, appreciation, and pleasure connect with one another in the experience of metaphor. Consideration of the possibility that metaphor or something very like it occurs in nonverbal media: gesture, dance, painting, music.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 171: Justice (ETHICSOC 171, POLISCI 103, POLISCI 336S, PUBLPOL 103C, PUBLPOL 307)

In this course, we explore three sets of questions relating to justice and the meaning of a just society: (1) Liberty: What is liberty, and why is it important? Which liberties must a just society protect? (2) Equality: What is equality, and why is it important? What sorts of equality should a just society ensure? (3) Reconciliation: Are liberty and equality in conflict? If so, how should we respond to the conflict between them? We approach these topics by examining competing theories of justice including utilitarianism, libertarianism/classical liberalism, and egalitarian liberalism. The class also serves as an introduction to how to do political philosophy, and students approaching these topics for the first time are welcome. Political Science majors taking this course to fulfill the WIM requirement should enroll in POLISCI 103.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, GER:EC-EthicReas, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 171P: 20th Century Political Theory: Liberalism and its Critics (ETHICSOC 130, POLISCI 130)

In this course, students learn and engage with the debates that have animated political theory since the early 20th century. What is the proper relationship between the individual, the community, and the state? Are liberty and equality in conflict, and, if so, which should take priority? What does justice mean in a large and diverse modern society? The subtitle of the course, borrowed from a book by Michael Sandel, is "Liberalism and its Critics" because the questions we discuss in this class center on the meaning of, and alternatives to, the liberal idea that the basic goal of society should be the protection of individual rights. Readings include selections from works by John Rawls, Hannah Arendt, Robert Nozick, Michael Sandel, Iris Marion Young, and Martha Nussbaum. No prior experience with political theory is necessary.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Coyne, B. (PI); Wang, A. (TA)

PHIL 174B: Universal Basic Income: the philosophy behind the proposal (ETHICSOC 174B, ETHICSOC 274B, PHIL 274B, POLISCI 134E, POLISCI 338)

Universal basic income (or UBI) is a regular cash allowance given to all members of a community without means test, regardless of personal desert, and with no strings attached. Once a utopian proposal, the policy is now discussed and piloted throughout the world. The growth of income and wealth inequalities, the precariousness of labor, and the persistence of abject poverty have all been important drivers of renewed interest in UBI in the United States. But it is without a doubt the fear that automation may displace workers from the labor market at unprecedented rates that explains the revival of the policy in recent years, including by many in or around Silicon Valley. Among the various objections to the proposal, one concerns its moral adequacy: Isn't it fundamentally unjust to give cash to all indiscriminately rather than to those who need it and deserve it? Over the years, a variety of scholars have defended the policy on moral grounds, arguing that UBI is a tool of equality, liberal freedom, republican freedom, gender equity, or racial equity. Many others have attacked UBI on those very same grounds, making the case that alternative policy proposals like the job guarantee, means-tested benefits, conditional benefits, or reparations should be preferred. Students will learn a great deal about political theory and ethics in general but always through the specific angle of the policy proposal, and they will become experts on the philosophy, politics and economics of UBI. The seminar is open to undergraduate and graduate students in all departments. There are no pre-requisites.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Bidadanure, J. (PI)

PHIL 175: Philosophy of Law (ETHICSOC 175B, PHIL 275)

This course will explore foundational issues about the nature of law and its relation to morality, and about legal responsibility and criminal punishment. Prerequisite: graduate student standing in philosophy or, for others, prior course work in philosophy that includes Philosophy 80.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bratman, M. (PI)

PHIL 175B: Philosophy of Public Policy (ETHICSOC 175X, PHIL 275B, POLISCI 135E, POLISCI 235E, PUBLPOL 177)

From healthcare to voting reforms, social protection and educational policies, public policies are underpinned by moral values. When we debate those policies, we typically appeal to values like justice, fairness, equality, freedom, privacy, and safety. A proper understanding of those values, what they mean, how they may conflict, and how they can be weighed against each other is essential to developing a competent and critical eye on our complex political world. We will ask questions such as: Is compulsory voting justified? Should children have the right to vote? Is affirmative action just? What is wrong with racial profiling? What are the duties of citizens of affluent countries towards migrants? Do we have a right to privacy? Is giving cash to all unconditionally fair? This class will introduce students to a number of methods and frameworks coming out of ethics and political philosophy and will give students a lot of time to practice ethically informed debates on public policies. At the end of this class, students should have the skills to critically examine a wide range of diverse policy proposals from the perspective of ethics, moral and political philosophy. There are no prerequisites. Undergraduates and graduates from all departments are welcome to attend.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

PHIL 175W: Law and Philosophy (ETHICSOC 175W, PHIL 275W)

In this course, we will examine some of the central questions in philosophy of law, including:nWhat is law? How do we determine the content of laws? What is the proper role of judges in interpreting the law? Do laws have moral content? What is authority? What gives law its authority? Must we obey the law? If so, why? How can we justify the law? How should we understand and respond to unjust laws? What is punishment? What is punishment for? What, if anything, justifies punishment by the state? What is enough punishment? What is too much punishment? What does justice require under non-ideal conditions?
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Salkin, W. (PI)

PHIL 176A: Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought (CLASSICS 181, CLASSICS 381, ETHICSOC 130A, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A)

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, centered on reading canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle against other texts and against the political and historical background. Topics include: interdependence, legitimacy, justice; political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ober, J. (PI); Ozturk, U. (TA)

PHIL 176P: Democratic Theory (ETHICSOC 234, POLISCI 234)

Most people agree that democracy is a good thing, but do we agree on what democracy is? This course will examine the concept of democracy in political philosophy. We will address the following questions: What reason(s), if any, do we have for valuing democracy? What does it mean to treat people as political equals? When does a group of individuals constitute "a people," and how can a people make genuinely collective decisions? Can democracy really be compatible with social inequality? With an entrenched constitution? With representation?
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Coyne, B. (PI)

PHIL 178: Ethics in Society Honors Seminar (ETHICSOC 190)

For students planning honors in Ethics in Society. Methods of research. Students present issues of public and personal morality; topics chosen with advice of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Sockness, B. (PI)

PHIL 178M: Introduction to Environmental Ethics (ETHICSOC 178M, ETHICSOC 278M, PHIL 278M, POLISCI 134L)

How should human beings relate to the natural world? Do we have moral obligations toward non-human animals and other parts of nature? And what do we owe to other human beings, including future generations, with respect to the environment? The first part of this course will examine such questions in light of some of our current ethical theories: considering what those theories suggest regarding the extent and nature of our environmental obligations; and also whether reflection on such obligations can prove informative about the adequacy of our ethical theories. In the second part of the course, we will use the tools that we have acquired to tackle various ethical questions that confront us in our dealings with the natural world, looking at subjects such as: animal rights; conservation; economic approaches to the environment; access to and control over natural resources; environmental justice and pollution; climate change; technology and the environment; and environmental activism.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4-5 | UG Reqs: GER:EC-EthicReas, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Adams, M. (PI)

PHIL 179W: Du Bois and Democracy (CSRE 179W, ETHICSOC 179W, PHIL 279W)

In this course, we will work together to develop a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the political philosophy of W. E. B. Du Bois, giving special attention to the development of his democratic theory. We will do so by reading a number of key texts by Du Bois as well as contemporary scholarship from philosophy and cognate fields.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Salkin, W. (PI)

PHIL 180: Metaphysics

This is an undergraduate only class. Intensive introduction to core topics in contemporary metaphysics. What is the fundamental structure of reality? Is it objective? How can there be truths about what is possible or necessary, if only the actual exists? Do we have free will? What is it for an event to be determined by its causes? Is the only thing that exists the current instance of time? Is the world purely physical? Does science answer all of these questions? Prerequisites: 1, 80 and background in logic.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Peacocke, A. (PI)

PHIL 181: Philosophy of Language (PHIL 281)

The study of conceptual questions about language as a focus of contemporary philosophy for its inherent interest and because philosophers see questions about language as behind perennial questions in other areas of philosophy including epistemology, philosophy of science, metaphysics, and ethics. Key concepts and debates about the notions of meaning, truth, reference, and language use, with relations to psycholinguistics and formal semantics. Readings from philosophers such as Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Grice, and Kripke. Prerequisites: 80 and background in logic.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 181B: Topics in Philosophy of Language (PHIL 281B)

This course builds on the material of 181/281, focusing on debates and developments in the pragmatics of conversation, the semantics/pragmatics distinction, the contextuality of meaning, the nature of truth and its connection to meaning, and the workings of particular linguistic constructions of special philosophical relevance. Students who have not taken 181/281 should seek the instructor's advice as to whether they have sufficient background.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 182B: Naturalizing Content (PHIL 282B)

Meaning is mysterious. Right now you are looking at funny marks on a screen. Somehow, these marks are conveying to you information about a class that will be offered at Stanford during the winter quarter 2020. But how is this happening? These marks surely have no natural connection to the future class. They aren't like the footprints of a tiger, for example. Additionally, thousands of times a day, you manage to gain information about all manner of subjects by hearing strange sounds that have no natural connection to the subject matter. The sounds aren't like the bark of a dog, for example. You also manage to think about things that aren't in front of you, as when you think of a Hippo wearing a fedora. Yet activity in your brain has no natural connection to Hippos in fedoras (we presume). This class will investigate how it is that sounds, marks, and mental states manage to have semantic content. In other words, we will discuss attempts to solve the mystery of meaning, in all of its forms.nThe class is open to all graduate students in philosophy. Undergraduates who have not taken Phil 80 and at least one upper level philosophy class must receive permission to enroll.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI); Warren, J. (PI)

PHIL 182H: Truth (PHIL 282H)

Philosophical debates about the place in human lives and the value to human beings of truth and its pursuit. The nature and significance of truth-involving virtues such as accuracy, sincerity, and candor. Prerequisite Phil 80 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 184: Epistemology (PHIL 284)

This is an advanced introduction to core topics in epistemology -- the philosophical study of human knowledge. Questions covered will include: What is knowledge? Can we know anything outside our own minds? Must all knowledge rest on secure foundations? Does knowing something require knowing that you know it? What are the connections between knowledge and rationality? Does 'knowledge' mean the same in the philosophy classroom as it does in everyday life? Prerequisite Phil 80 or consent of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 185: Special Topics in Epistemology (PHIL 285)

Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gerken, M. (PI)

PHIL 186: Philosophy of Mind (PHIL 286)

(Graduate students register for 286.) This is an advanced introduction to core topics in the philosophy of mind. Prerequisite: PHIL 80
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI); Thobani, I. (TA)

PHIL 186M: Ontology of the Mental (PHIL 286M)

Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Taylor, K. (PI)

PHIL 187: Philosophy of Action (PHIL 287)

This course will explore foundational issues about individual agency, explanation of action, reasons and causes, agency in the natural world, practical rationality, interpretation, teleological explanation, intention and intentional action, agency and time, intention and belief, knowledge of one¿s own actions, identification and hierarchy, and shared agency. Prerequisite: graduate student standing in philosophy or, for others, prior course work in philosophy that includes Philosophy 80.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bratman, M. (PI)

PHIL 194D: Capstone Seminar

Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 194F: Capstone seminar: Beauty and Other Forms of Value

The nature and importance of beauty and our susceptibility to beauty, our capacity to discern it and enjoy it and prize it, as discussed by philosophers, artists, and critics from various traditions and historical periods. Relations between beauty and ethical values (such as moral goodness) and cognitive values (such as truth). Capstone seminar for undergrad majors.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 194H: Capstone Seminar

Capstone seminar for the major.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Malmgren, A. (PI)

PHIL 194W: Capstone Seminar: Imagination in Fiction and Philosophy

This course is about imagination in fiction and philosophy. One core set of questions will have to do with our use of the imagination in fiction. Are there limits to the way in which fiction can engage the imagination? If so, are these limits different from general limits on the imagination? Another set of questions is about the nature of imagination and its importance to philosophy. What is imagination? Can it produce knowledge? How is imagination engaged in fictional thought experiments? Readings will include: selections from contemporary analytic philosophy; a few pieces of literary theory; and both contemporary and historical fiction. Students are expected to have general facility with challenging philosophical texts and fiction in English. Knowledge of modal logic will be helpful but not required. Prerequisites: at least one course in the Philosophy department. Course is not repeatable for credit. This is a capstone seminar for philosophy majors and students pursuing the Philosophy & Literature concentration. Other students are welcome to enroll, but preference will be given to students in these groups.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Peacocke, A. (PI)

PHIL 194Z: Capstone: Living a Meaningful Literary Life

Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Holliday, J. (PI)

PHIL 197C: Curricular Practical Training

(Graduate students enroll in 297C) Students engage in internship work and integrate that work into their academic program. Following internship work, students complete a research report outlining work activity. Meets the requirements for curricular practical training for students on F-1 visas. Student is responsible for arranging own internship/employment and faculty sponsorship. Register under faculty sponsor's section number. Course may be repeated for credit.
Terms: Sum | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

PHIL 198: The Dualist Undergraduate Journal

Weekly meeting of the editorial board of The Dualist, a national journal of undergraduate work in philosophy. Open to all undergraduates. May be repeated.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kim, H. (PI)

PHIL 199: Seminar for Prospective Honors Students

Open to juniors intending to do honors in philosophy. Methods of research in philosophy. Topics and strategies for completing honors project. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 207B: Plato's Later Metaphysics and Epistemology (PHIL 107B)

A close reading of Plato's Theatetus and Parmenides, his two mature dialogues on the topics of knowledge and reality. We will consider various definitions of knowledge, metaphysical problems about the objects of knowledge, and a proposed method for examining and resolving such problems. Some background in ancient Greek philosophy and/or contemporary metaphysics and epistemology is preferred, but not required. Prerequisite: Phil 80.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 208: Aristotle's Metaphysics Book Alpha (PHIL 108)

An introduction both to Aristotle's own metaphysics and to his treatment of his predecessors on causality, included the early Ionian cosmologists, atomism, Pythagoreans, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Plato. Prerequisite: one course in ancient Greek philosophy.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 208B: Aristotle's Physics Book One (PHIL 108B)

A chapter by chapter analysis of Aristotle's introductory discussions of physical theory. Topics to be considered include Aristotle's treatment of Eleatic monism, the role of opposites in pre-Socratic physics, the role of matter in physics, and an analysis of the elements of changing objects into form, privation and a subject.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 210: Plato's Republic (PHIL 110)

The Republic is one most famous and influential texts in the history of Western philosophy. We shall read in its entirety closely (along with some other related Platonic texts) focusing on its epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, philosophy of art, and political philosophy.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Irwin, T. (PI)

PHIL 215: PreSocratics (PHIL 115)

Exploration of the Greek philosophical inquiry undertaken in the roughly two hundred years before Socrates. This Presocratic period saw vibrant and varied treatment of a wide range of areas, including physics, metaphysics, epistemology, cosmology, theology, biology, and ethics. We will proceed chronologically through the major Presocratic philosophers and schools, carefully examining the fragmentary evidence on each and discussing the interpretation of their doctrines from this evidence. Focus will be on the Presocratics in their own right, though their influence upon later thought, especially Plato and Aristotle, will also receive considerable attention. Consideration of how the ideas of the Presocratics were transmitted and manipulated in the ancient tradition, as well as of the nature and development of Western philosophy itself.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Pinto, R. (PI)

PHIL 217: Descartes (PHIL 117)

(Formerly 121/221.) Descartes's philosophical writings on rules for the direction of the mind, method, innate ideas and ideas of the senses, mind, God, eternal truths, and the material world.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; De Pierris, G. (PI)

PHIL 221: History of Political Philosophy (ETHICSOC 121, PHIL 121)

Nation-states issue legal commands, and wield overwhelming power to coercively enforce them. On one hand, this allows states to protect people from each other. On the other hand, what protects people from the state, even if is democratic, when it facilitates domination and oppression of some citizens by others? In this course we are introduced to authors grappling with these issues in the evolving canon of Western political philosophy from ancient Greece to the 20th century. This takes us through questions about obligation, the state, consent, rights, democracy, property, free speech, socialism, gender, race. Authors whose arguments we will study and scrutinize include Plato, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Marx, Mill, Wollstonecraft, Douglass, and Rawls, along with critics and commentators.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 225: Kant's First Critique (PHIL 125)

(Graduate students register for 225.) The founding work of Kant's critical philosophy emphasizing his contributions to metaphysics and epistemology. His attempts to limit metaphysics to the objects of experience. Prerequisite: course dealing with systematic issues in metaphysics or epistemology, or with the history of modern philosophy.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Friedman, M. (PI)

PHIL 229: Plotinus and Augustine (PHIL 329, RELIGST 269, RELIGST 369)

Professor's permission required to register. A reading course focused on the influence of Plotinus Enneads on Augustine's Confessions, early dialogues, and sections on reason and memory in the De trinitate. Proficiency in Greek and Latin will be helpful but is not required. Professor's prior permission required, interested students should contact the professor about course schedule: tsheehan@stanford.edu . Undergraduates register for 200-level for 5 units. Graduate students register for 300-level for 3-5 units.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sheehan, T. (PI)

PHIL 231: Introduction to Philosophy of Education (EDUC 204, ETHICSOC 204)

How to think philosophically about educational problems. Recent influential scholarship in philosophy of education. No previous study in philosophy required.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Callan, E. (PI)

PHIL 232: Phenomenology: Merleau-Ponty (PHIL 132)

(Graduate students register for 232.) French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that we are neither angels nor machines but living beings. In contrast to both a first person introspective analysis and the third person scientific approach, Merleau-Ponty aimed to describe the basic invariant structures of human life by using the phenomenological method. The result was a new concept of experience that is essentially embodied. In this class, you will learn about the phenomenological method and read Merleau-Ponty¿s now classic text Phenomenology of Perception. Prerequisite: one prior course in Philosophy, or permission of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jackson, G. (PI)

PHIL 234: Phenomenology: Husserl (PHIL 134)

(Graduate students register for 234.) Prerequisite: one prior course in philosophy, or permission of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jackson, G. (PI)

PHIL 237: Wittgenstein (PHIL 137)

(Graduate students register for 237.) An exploration of Wittgenstein's changing views about meaning, mind, knowledge, and the nature of philosophical perplexity and philosophical insight, focusing on the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 239: Teaching Methods in Philosophy

For Ph.D. students in their first or second year who are or are about to be teaching assistants for the department. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 1-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Slabon, T. (PI)

PHIL 241: Dissertation Development Seminar

Required of second-year Philosophy Ph.D. students; restricted to Stanford Philosophy Ph.D. students. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.
Terms: Sum | Units: 1-4 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bobonich, C. (PI)

PHIL 250: Mathematical Logic (PHIL 150)

An introduction to the concepts and techniques used in mathematical logic, focusing on propositional, modal, and predicate logic. Highlights connections with philosophy, mathematics, computer science, linguistics, and neighboring fields.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 251: Metalogic (PHIL 151)

(Formerly 160A.) The syntax and semantics of sentential and first-order logic. Concepts of model theory. Gödel's completeness theorem and its consequences: the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and the compactness theorem. Prerequisite: 150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Icard, T. (PI)

PHIL 252: Computability and Logic (PHIL 152)

Approaches to effective computation: recursive functions, register machines, and Turing machines. Proof of their equivalence, discussion of Church's thesis. Elementary recursion theory. These techniques used to prove Gödel's incompleteness theorem for arithmetic, whose technical and philosophical repercussions are surveyed. Prerequisite: 151.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sommer, R. (PI)

PHIL 254: Modal Logic (PHIL 154)

(Graduate students register for 254.) Syntax and semantics of modal logic and its basic theory: including expressive power, axiomatic completeness, correspondence, and complexity. Applications to topics in philosophy, computer science, mathematics, linguistics, and game theory. Prerequisite: 150 or preferably 151.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; van Benthem, J. (PI)

PHIL 255: Topics in Mathematical Logic: Non-Classical Logic (PHIL 155)

This year's topic is Non-Classical Logic. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Briggs, R. (PI)

PHIL 262: Philosophy of Mathematics (PHIL 162)

Prerequisite: PHIL150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Warren, J. (PI)

PHIL 265: Philosophy of Physics: Quantum Mechanics (PHIL 165)

Graduate students register for 265.nnPREREQUISITES: No detailed knowledge of quantum physics or advanced mathematics is presumed. Some background in philosophy, natural science or mathematics will be helpful. Students will benefit from possession of a modicum of mathematical maturity (roughly equivalent to a familiarity with elementary single-variable calculus or the metatheory of first-order logic).
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 267D: Philosophy of Neuroscience (PHIL 167D, SYMSYS 167D)

How can we explain the mind? With approaches ranging from computational models to cellular-level characterizations of neural responses to the characterization of behavior, neuroscience aims to explain how we see, think, decide, and even feel. While these approaches have been highly successful in answering some kinds of questions, they have resulted in surprisingly little progress in others. We'll look at the relationships between the neuroscientific enterprise, philosophical investigations of the nature of the mind, and our everyday experiences as creatures with minds. Prerequisite: PHIL 80.n(Not open to freshmen.)
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI)

PHIL 270: Ethical Theory (ETHICSOC 170, PHIL 170)

This course serves as a rigorous introduction to moral philosophy for students with little or no background. We will examine ideas from four important figures in moral thought: Plato, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. Each of these philosophers played an integral role in the development of moral philosophy, because each offers thoughtful, compelling answers to some of the discipline¿s most central questions. These questions include: What is involved in being a good person or living a good life? What should we value, and why? How are we motivated by morality? How (if at all) is morality a matter of what is customary or conventional? How (much) do the consequences of our actions matter? Importantly, this course is not only about learning what others have thought about the answers to these (and related) questions. By considering and criticizing the ideas and arguments of these philosophers, the aim is to cultivate our own ability to think systematically, rationally, and reflectively, and to make up our own minds about how to answer these kinds of questions.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dannenberg, J. (PI)

PHIL 270B: Metaphor (PHIL 170B)

In metaphor we think and talk about two things at once: two different subject matters are mingled to rich and unpredictable effect. A close critical study of the main modern accounts of metaphor's nature and interest, drawing on the work of writers, linguists, philosophers, and literary critics. Attention to how understanding, appreciation, and pleasure connect with one another in the experience of metaphor. Consideration of the possibility that metaphor or something very like it occurs in nonverbal media: gesture, dance, painting, music.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 274B: Universal Basic Income: the philosophy behind the proposal (ETHICSOC 174B, ETHICSOC 274B, PHIL 174B, POLISCI 134E, POLISCI 338)

Universal basic income (or UBI) is a regular cash allowance given to all members of a community without means test, regardless of personal desert, and with no strings attached. Once a utopian proposal, the policy is now discussed and piloted throughout the world. The growth of income and wealth inequalities, the precariousness of labor, and the persistence of abject poverty have all been important drivers of renewed interest in UBI in the United States. But it is without a doubt the fear that automation may displace workers from the labor market at unprecedented rates that explains the revival of the policy in recent years, including by many in or around Silicon Valley. Among the various objections to the proposal, one concerns its moral adequacy: Isn't it fundamentally unjust to give cash to all indiscriminately rather than to those who need it and deserve it? Over the years, a variety of scholars have defended the policy on moral grounds, arguing that UBI is a tool of equality, liberal freedom, republican freedom, gender equity, or racial equity. Many others have attacked UBI on those very same grounds, making the case that alternative policy proposals like the job guarantee, means-tested benefits, conditional benefits, or reparations should be preferred. Students will learn a great deal about political theory and ethics in general but always through the specific angle of the policy proposal, and they will become experts on the philosophy, politics and economics of UBI. The seminar is open to undergraduate and graduate students in all departments. There are no pre-requisites.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Bidadanure, J. (PI)

PHIL 275: Philosophy of Law (ETHICSOC 175B, PHIL 175)

This course will explore foundational issues about the nature of law and its relation to morality, and about legal responsibility and criminal punishment. Prerequisite: graduate student standing in philosophy or, for others, prior course work in philosophy that includes Philosophy 80.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bratman, M. (PI)

PHIL 275B: Philosophy of Public Policy (ETHICSOC 175X, PHIL 175B, POLISCI 135E, POLISCI 235E, PUBLPOL 177)

From healthcare to voting reforms, social protection and educational policies, public policies are underpinned by moral values. When we debate those policies, we typically appeal to values like justice, fairness, equality, freedom, privacy, and safety. A proper understanding of those values, what they mean, how they may conflict, and how they can be weighed against each other is essential to developing a competent and critical eye on our complex political world. We will ask questions such as: Is compulsory voting justified? Should children have the right to vote? Is affirmative action just? What is wrong with racial profiling? What are the duties of citizens of affluent countries towards migrants? Do we have a right to privacy? Is giving cash to all unconditionally fair? This class will introduce students to a number of methods and frameworks coming out of ethics and political philosophy and will give students a lot of time to practice ethically informed debates on public policies. At the end of this class, students should have the skills to critically examine a wide range of diverse policy proposals from the perspective of ethics, moral and political philosophy. There are no prerequisites. Undergraduates and graduates from all departments are welcome to attend.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

PHIL 275W: Law and Philosophy (ETHICSOC 175W, PHIL 175W)

In this course, we will examine some of the central questions in philosophy of law, including:nWhat is law? How do we determine the content of laws? What is the proper role of judges in interpreting the law? Do laws have moral content? What is authority? What gives law its authority? Must we obey the law? If so, why? How can we justify the law? How should we understand and respond to unjust laws? What is punishment? What is punishment for? What, if anything, justifies punishment by the state? What is enough punishment? What is too much punishment? What does justice require under non-ideal conditions?
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Salkin, W. (PI)

PHIL 276A: Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought (CLASSICS 181, CLASSICS 381, ETHICSOC 130A, PHIL 176A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A)

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, centered on reading canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle against other texts and against the political and historical background. Topics include: interdependence, legitimacy, justice; political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ober, J. (PI); Ozturk, U. (TA)

PHIL 278C: Free Speech, Academic Freedom, and Democracy (EDUC 217, ETHICSOC 217X)

The course examines connected ideas of free speech, academic freedom, and democratic legitimacy that are still widely shared by many of us but have been subject to skeptical pressures both outside and inside the academy in recent years. The course explores the principled basis of these ideas, how well they might (or might not) be defended against skeptical challenge, and how they might be applied in particular controversies about the rights of students, instructors, and researchers.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Callan, E. (PI)

PHIL 278M: Introduction to Environmental Ethics (ETHICSOC 178M, ETHICSOC 278M, PHIL 178M, POLISCI 134L)

How should human beings relate to the natural world? Do we have moral obligations toward non-human animals and other parts of nature? And what do we owe to other human beings, including future generations, with respect to the environment? The first part of this course will examine such questions in light of some of our current ethical theories: considering what those theories suggest regarding the extent and nature of our environmental obligations; and also whether reflection on such obligations can prove informative about the adequacy of our ethical theories. In the second part of the course, we will use the tools that we have acquired to tackle various ethical questions that confront us in our dealings with the natural world, looking at subjects such as: animal rights; conservation; economic approaches to the environment; access to and control over natural resources; environmental justice and pollution; climate change; technology and the environment; and environmental activism.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4-5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Adams, M. (PI)

PHIL 279W: Du Bois and Democracy (CSRE 179W, ETHICSOC 179W, PHIL 179W)

In this course, we will work together to develop a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the political philosophy of W. E. B. Du Bois, giving special attention to the development of his democratic theory. We will do so by reading a number of key texts by Du Bois as well as contemporary scholarship from philosophy and cognate fields.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Salkin, W. (PI)

PHIL 281: Philosophy of Language (PHIL 181)

The study of conceptual questions about language as a focus of contemporary philosophy for its inherent interest and because philosophers see questions about language as behind perennial questions in other areas of philosophy including epistemology, philosophy of science, metaphysics, and ethics. Key concepts and debates about the notions of meaning, truth, reference, and language use, with relations to psycholinguistics and formal semantics. Readings from philosophers such as Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Grice, and Kripke. Prerequisites: 80 and background in logic.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 281B: Topics in Philosophy of Language (PHIL 181B)

This course builds on the material of 181/281, focusing on debates and developments in the pragmatics of conversation, the semantics/pragmatics distinction, the contextuality of meaning, the nature of truth and its connection to meaning, and the workings of particular linguistic constructions of special philosophical relevance. Students who have not taken 181/281 should seek the instructor's advice as to whether they have sufficient background.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 282B: Naturalizing Content (PHIL 182B)

Meaning is mysterious. Right now you are looking at funny marks on a screen. Somehow, these marks are conveying to you information about a class that will be offered at Stanford during the winter quarter 2020. But how is this happening? These marks surely have no natural connection to the future class. They aren't like the footprints of a tiger, for example. Additionally, thousands of times a day, you manage to gain information about all manner of subjects by hearing strange sounds that have no natural connection to the subject matter. The sounds aren't like the bark of a dog, for example. You also manage to think about things that aren't in front of you, as when you think of a Hippo wearing a fedora. Yet activity in your brain has no natural connection to Hippos in fedoras (we presume). This class will investigate how it is that sounds, marks, and mental states manage to have semantic content. In other words, we will discuss attempts to solve the mystery of meaning, in all of its forms.nThe class is open to all graduate students in philosophy. Undergraduates who have not taken Phil 80 and at least one upper level philosophy class must receive permission to enroll.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI); Warren, J. (PI)

PHIL 282H: Truth (PHIL 182H)

Philosophical debates about the place in human lives and the value to human beings of truth and its pursuit. The nature and significance of truth-involving virtues such as accuracy, sincerity, and candor. Prerequisite Phil 80 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hills, D. (PI)

PHIL 284: Epistemology (PHIL 184)

This is an advanced introduction to core topics in epistemology -- the philosophical study of human knowledge. Questions covered will include: What is knowledge? Can we know anything outside our own minds? Must all knowledge rest on secure foundations? Does knowing something require knowing that you know it? What are the connections between knowledge and rationality? Does 'knowledge' mean the same in the philosophy classroom as it does in everyday life? Prerequisite Phil 80 or consent of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 285: Special Topics in Epistemology (PHIL 185)

Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gerken, M. (PI)

PHIL 286: Philosophy of Mind (PHIL 186)

(Graduate students register for 286.) This is an advanced introduction to core topics in the philosophy of mind. Prerequisite: PHIL 80
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI); Thobani, I. (TA)

PHIL 286M: Ontology of the Mental (PHIL 186M)

Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Taylor, K. (PI)

PHIL 287: Philosophy of Action (PHIL 187)

This course will explore foundational issues about individual agency, explanation of action, reasons and causes, agency in the natural world, practical rationality, interpretation, teleological explanation, intention and intentional action, agency and time, intention and belief, knowledge of one¿s own actions, identification and hierarchy, and shared agency. Prerequisite: graduate student standing in philosophy or, for others, prior course work in philosophy that includes Philosophy 80.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bratman, M. (PI)

PHIL 297C: Curricular Practical Training

(Undergraduate students enroll in 197C) Students engage in internship work and integrate that work into their academic program. Following internship work, students complete a research report outlining work activity. Meets the requirements for curricular practical training for students on F-1 visas. Student is responsible for arranging own internship/employment and faculty sponsorship. Register under faculty sponsor's section number. Course may be repeated for credit.
Terms: Sum | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

PHIL 300: Proseminar

Topically focused seminar. Required of all first year Philosophy PhD students. This seminar is limited to first-year Ph.D. students in Philosophy. We will focus on some major work over roughly the past 60 years on inter-related issues about practical reason, responsibility, agency, and sociality.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 301: Dissertation Development Proseminar

A required seminar for third year philosophy PhD students, designed to extend and consolidate work done in the dissertation development seminar the previous summer.
Terms: Aut, Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; De Pierris, G. (PI)

PHIL 302P: Plato's Laws X

Grad seminar. Close reading and analysis of Book 10 of Plato's Laws. In this book, Plato's political thought intersects with his philosophic theology (and therein also with his physics and metaphysics) as he considers the appropriate handling of god(s) by the polis and argues against atheism, deism, and conventional propitiatory theism. 2 unit option only for Philosophy PhDs beyond the second year.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Pinto, R. (PI)

PHIL 313W: Aristotle on Virtues

Graduate seminar. 2 unit option only for Phil PhDs beyond the second year.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 317: Topics in Plato: Plato on Practical Rationality

Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bobonich, C. (PI)

PHIL 322: Hume

Hume's theoretical philosophy emphasizing skepticism and naturalism, the theory of ideas and belief, space and time, causation and necessity, induction and laws of nature, miracles, a priori reasoning, the external world, and the identity of the self. 2 unit option only for Philosophy PhD students beyond the relevant PhD distribution requirements. Prerequisites: Undergraduates wishing to take this course must have previously taken History of Modern Philosophy or the equivalent, and may only enroll with permission from the instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; De Pierris, G. (PI)

PHIL 327: Scientific Philosophy: From Kant to Kuhn and Beyond

Examines the development of scientific philosophy from Kant, through the Naturphilosophie of Schelling and Hegel, to the neo-Kantian scientific tradition initiated by Hermann von Helmholtz and the neo-Kantian history and philosophy of science of Ernst Cassirer and Thomas Kuhn. Proposes a post-Kuhnian approach to the history and philosophy of science in light of these developments.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Friedman, M. (PI)

PHIL 329: Plotinus and Augustine (PHIL 229, RELIGST 269, RELIGST 369)

Professor's permission required to register. A reading course focused on the influence of Plotinus Enneads on Augustine's Confessions, early dialogues, and sections on reason and memory in the De trinitate. Proficiency in Greek and Latin will be helpful but is not required. Professor's prior permission required, interested students should contact the professor about course schedule: tsheehan@stanford.edu . Undergraduates register for 200-level for 5 units. Graduate students register for 300-level for 3-5 units.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sheehan, T. (PI)

PHIL 333: Philosophy, Literature, and the Arts Core Seminar (DLCL 333, ENGLISH 333, MUSIC 332)

This course serves as the Core Seminar for the PhD Minor in Philosophy, Literature, and the Arts. It introduces students to a wide range of topics at the intersection of philosophy with literary and arts criticism. The seminar is intended for graduate students. It is suitable for theoretically ambitious students of literature and the arts, philosophers with interests in value theory, aesthetics, and topics in language and mind, and other students with strong interest in the psychological importance of engagement with the arts. May be repeated for credit. In this year¿s installment, we focus on how artistic kinds or genres help set the terms on which individual works are experienced, understood, and valued, with special attention to lyric poetry and music.
Terms: Aut | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 335: Topics in Aesthetics

Much of the seminar will focus on notions of abstraction in the arts (and related notions of formalism)¿in painting, music, poetry, etc. What is it for a work to be abstract, or more or less abstract than other works? How is abstraction important, and how is it related to aesthetic value and to values of other kinds? I understand abstraction to consist in the absence or limitation of one or another kind of aboutness: representation in any of several senses, semantic properties, pragmatic implications, meanings of one sort or another, etc. There are many of different kinds of aboutness, and so many corresponding varieties of abstraction. Readings will be by an assortment of philosophers, critics, music theorists, art historians etc., probably including Clive Bell, Roger Fry, Ernst Gombrich, Clement Greenberg, Eduard Hanslick, Eileen John, Peter Kivy, Peter Lamarque, Suzanne Langer, Alexander Nehamas, Roger Scruton, Richard Wollheim. I will try out some of my own recent work-in-progress. The course will be organized as a seminar. Students will work on projects, term papers, and present drafts to the group, so we can help one another. They will also be asked to give short informal presentations on readings to be discussed. The topics we cover after the first several meetings will depend partly on what projects students choose, as well as our interests. There are lots of great possibilities, including, of course, exploring various kinds of aboutness. Grades will be based on the term papers and participation in the seminar. This course is intended for graduate students. Qualified undergraduates are welcome, but instructor permission is required.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Walton, K. (PI)

PHIL 347: Aristotle's Logic (CLASSICS 197, CLASSICS 397)

In this seminar we read through Aristotle's Prior Analytics, paying close attention to the relation between Aristotle's logic to Greek mathematics, and to its place within Aristotle's overall philosophy. Knowledge of Greek is not required. Open to advanced undergraduate students.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI); Netz, R. (PI)

PHIL 359: Topics in Logic, Information and Agency

Logical analysis of information, interaction and games, with topics connecting philosophy, computer science, game theory, and other fields. The focus is on current research at these interfaces. Prerequisite: 151, 154/254, or equivalent background. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 365: Seminar in Philosophy of Physics

2 unit option for PhD students only.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ryckman, T. (PI)

PHIL 368: Philosophy of Biology: Learning and Evolution

Graduate seminar. 2 unit option for Philosophy PhDs beyond the second year only.
Terms: Aut | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI)

PHIL 371D: INEQUALITY: Economic and Philosophical Perspectives (ETHICSOC 371R, POLISCI 431L)

The nature of and problem of inequality is central to both economics and philosophy. Economists study the causes of inequality, design tools to measure it and track it over time, and examine its consequences. Philosophers are centrally concerned with the justification of inequality and the reasons why various types of inequality are or are not objectionable.nIn this class we bring both of these approaches together. Our class explores the different meanings of and measurements for understanding inequality, our best understandings of how much inequality there is, its causes, its consequences, and whether we ought to reduce it, and if so, how. nThis is an interdisciplinary graduate seminar. We propose some familiarity with basic ideas in economics and basic ideas in contemporary political philosophy; we will explain and learn about more complex ideas as we proceed. The class will be capped at 20 students.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Satz, D. (PI)

PHIL 371E: New Themes in Democratic Theory

After a tradition of skepticism about democracy, and then a period mostly in the 20th century of virtually unquestioned approval of it, normative democratic theory recently is showing (collectively) more ambivalence. After an introduction to the period in which ¿deliberative democracy¿ was the most influential paradigm, we will look closely at developments beginning with the ¿epistemic¿ variant of that approach (Estlund, Landemore), an ensuing reaction on epistemic grounds against democracy (Brennan, Mulligan), and then two new approaches that are influential: the case for (and against) choosing ¿representatives¿ by lottery rather than voting (Guerrero, Saunders), and the idea that the model for democratic equality is nothing like majoritarianism or agents who act on behalf of constituents but the idea of a social and institutional world in which no class or category of citizens is generally above the others, increasingly called ¿relational equality¿ (Pettit, Anderson, Scheffler, Kolodny).
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Estlund, D. (PI)

PHIL 371W: Speaking for Others (CSRE 271)

Graduate seminar. In this course, we will work together to develop a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the concept(s) of political representation. We will do so by examining a number of historical and contemporary theories of political representation developed within philosophy and cognate fields. 2 unit option only for Phil PhDs beyond the second year.
Terms: Aut | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Salkin, W. (PI)

PHIL 373: Grad Seminar

Grad seminar on ethical topic. May be repeated for credit. 2 unit option for PhD students beyond the second year only.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dannenberg, J. (PI)

PHIL 375V: Graduate Seminar: Voting

Graduate Seminar. 2 unit option only for Philosophy PhD students beyond the second year.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Briggs, R. (PI)

PHIL 376A: Shared Agency and Organized Institutions

What is the relation between small scale shared intentional agency - as when we sing a duet together - and broader social norms and larger organized institutions, such as a business organization or a legal system? Can such organized institutions themselves be (perhaps, accountable) intentional agents? Limited to graduate students in Philosophy and to others by permission of the instructor. 2 unit option available only to PhD students beyond the second year.
Terms: Aut | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bratman, M. (PI)

PHIL 376B: Institutions and Practical Reason

Graduate seminar. 2 unit option only for Phil PhDs beyond 2nd year.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 377B: Normativity, Rationality, and Reasoning

This 4-week mini course in February 2020 will explore the nature and interconnections of normativity, rationality and reasoning. It particularly concentrates on practical rationality and practical reasoning. Broome's book "Rationality Through Reasoning" will be a guide to the course.
Terms: Win | Units: 1-2 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Broome, J. (PI)

PHIL 378B: Unequal Relationships (ETHICSOC 378B, POLISCI 338B)

Over the past three decades, a relational egalitarian conception of equality has emerged in political philosophy. Proponents of the view argue that the point of equality is to establish communities where people are able to stand and relate as equals. This entails building societies free from a variety of modes of relating that are thought to be detrimental to our status as moral equals. The list of those inegalitarian relationships is long and includes oppression, domination, exploitation, marginalization, objectification, demonization, infantilization, and stigmatization. The relational approach to equality departs from the more distributive conceptions of equality that were offered in the 70s and after. The theories of justice proposed in response are still comparatively underdeveloped and need further elaboration, but they all concur in rejecting both the overly distributive paradigm and the preoccupation with individual responsibility central to most other egalitarian accounts. This graduate seminar will introduce students to the rich literature on equality in contemporary political philosophy, with a special focus on identifying and scrutinizing unequal relationships. Each week will be centered on a specific type of such unequal relationship, trying to understand how it operates, what social function it serves, and what makes it specifically harmful or wrongful to groups and individuals. Although there are no formal pre-requisites, this class is primarily designed for students considering writing a thesis in political or moral theory as well as for students in other disciplines who want to advance their understanding of equality as a moral value. Seniors in philosophy and political science with a substantial training in political theory will also be considered and should email the PI to communicate their interest. 2 unit option only for Phil PhDs beyond the second year.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bidadanure, J. (PI)

PHIL 383: Advanced Topics in Epistemology

May be repeated for credit. 2 unit option is only for Phil PhD students beyond the second year.
Terms: Aut | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lawlor, K. (PI)

PHIL 384P: Mental Action and Its Pathologies

In this graduate seminar, we will examine the nature of mental action. What is mental action? What kinds of mental actions can we perform intentionally? Is there such a thing as paralysis of mental action? Are delusions of thought insertion pathologies of mental action? nnThis is a seminar mainly for graduate students in philosophy, but readings will include many sources from the cognitive sciences. Students taking the course for credit will be required to do a presentation and write a research paper. 2 unit option only for Philosophy PhDs beyond the second year.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Peacocke, A. (PI)

PHIL 384W: The Liar Paradox

This is a graduate seminar on the liar and related paradoxes. We will go over recent approaches, starting with Kripke's 1975 approach. Work on the liar by Field, McGee, Priest, and others will be discussed. We will cover both technical and philosophical issues related to the liar. This class is open to graduate students in philosophy, all others need explicit permission. 2 unit option is for 3rd year Philosophy PhDs only.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Warren, J. (PI)

PHIL 385B: Topics in Metaphysics and Epistemology: Indexicals and Self-Knowledge

2 unit option for PhD students only. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Perry, J. (PI)

PHIL 388: Topics in Normativity

Topics in Normativity. Normative Consciousness. May be repeated for credit. 2 unit option for PhD students only.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Taylor, K. (PI)

PHIL 391: Seminar on Logic & Formal Philosophy (MATH 391)

Research seminar for graduate students working in logic and formal philosophy. Presentations on contemporary topics by seminar participants and outside visitors. Maybe be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut, Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Icard, T. (PI)

PHIL 500: Advanced Dissertation Seminar

Presentation of dissertation work in progress by seminar participants. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Malmgren, A. (PI)
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