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MATH 19: Calculus

Introduction to differential calculus of functions of one variable. Review of elementary functions (including exponentials and logarithms), limits, rates of change, the derivative and its properties, applications of the derivative. Prerequisites: trigonometry, advanced algebra, and analysis of elementary functions (including exponentials and logarithms). You must have taken the math placement diagnostic (offered through the Math Department website) in order to register for this course.
Terms: Aut, Win, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 20: Calculus

The definite integral, Riemann sums, antiderivatives, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and the Mean Value Theorem for integrals. Integration by substitution and by parts. Area between curves, and volume by slices, washers, and shells. Initial-value problems, exponential and logistic models, direction fields, and parametric curves. Prerequisite: Math 19 or equivalent. If you have not previously taken a calculus course at Stanford then you must have taken the math placement diagnostic (offered through the Math Department website) in order to register for this course.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 21: Calculus

Review of limit rules. Sequences, functions, limits at infinity, and comparison of growth of functions. Review of integration rules, integrating rational functions, and improper integrals. Infinite series, special examples, convergence and divergence tests (limit comparison and alternating series tests). Power series and interval of convergence, Taylor polynomials, Taylor series and applications. Prerequisite: Math 20 or equivalent. If you have not previously taken a calculus course at Stanford then you must have taken the math placement diagnostic (offered through the Math Department website) in order to register for this course.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 21A: Calculus, ACE

Students attend MATH 21 lectures with different recitation sessions: two hours per week instead of one, emphasizing engineering applications. Prerequisite: application; see https://web.stanford.edu/dept/soe/osa/ace.fb
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

MATH 51: Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables

Geometry and algebra of vectors, matrices and linear transformations, eigenvalues of symmetric matrices, vector-valued functions and functions of several variables, partial derivatives and gradients, derivative as a matrix, chain rule in several variables, critical points and Hessian, least-squares, , constrained and unconstrained optimization in several variables, Lagrange multipliers. Prerequisite: 21, 42, or the math placement diagnostic (offered through the Math Department website) in order to register for this course.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 51A: Linear Algebra and Differential Calculus of Several Variables, ACE

Students attend MATH 51 lectures with different recitation sessions: three hours per week instead of two, emphasizing engineering applications. Prerequisite: application; see https://web.stanford.edu/dept/soe/osa/ace.fb
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 6 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

MATH 52: Integral Calculus of Several Variables

Iterated integrals, line and surface integrals, vector analysis with applications to vector potentials and conservative vector fields, physical interpretations. Divergence theorem and the theorems of Green, Gauss, and Stokes. Prerequisite: 51 or equivalents.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 53: Ordinary Differential Equations with Linear Algebra

Ordinary differential equations and initial value problems, systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, applications of second-order equations to oscillations, matrix exponentials, Laplace transforms, stability of non-linear systems and phase plane analysis, numerical methods. Prerequisite: 51 or equivalents.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 61CM: Modern Mathematics: Continuous Methods

This is the first part of a theoretical (i.e., proof-based) sequence in multivariable calculus and linear algebra, providing a unified treatment of these topics. Covers general vector spaces, linear maps and duality, eigenvalues, inner product spaces, spectral theorem, metric spaces, differentiation in Euclidean space, submanifolds of Euclidean space, inverse and implicit function theorems, and many examples. The linear algebra content is covered jointly with Math 61DM. Students should know 1-variable calculus and have an interest in a theoretical approach to the subject. Prerequisite: score of 5 on the BC-level Advanced Placement calculus exam, or consent of the instructor.
Terms: Aut | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 61DM: Modern Mathematics: Discrete Methods

This is the first part of a theoretical (i.e., proof-based) sequence in discrete mathematics and linear algebra. Covers general vector spaces, linear maps and duality, eigenvalues, inner product spaces, spectral theorem, counting techniques, and linear algebra methods in discrete mathematics including spectral graph theory and dimension arguments. The linear algebra content is covered jointly with Math 61CM. Students should have an interest in a theoretical approach to the subject. Prerequisite: score of 5 on the BC-level Advanced Placement calculus exam, or consent of the instructor.nnThis sequence is not appropriate for students planning to major in natural sciences, economics, or engineering, but is suitable for majors in any other field (such as MCS ("data science"), computer science, and mathematics).
Terms: Aut | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 62CM: Modern Mathematics: Continuous Methods

A continuation of themes from Math 61CM, centered around: manifolds, multivariable integration, and the general Stokes' theorem. This includes a treatment of multilinear algebra, further study of submanifolds of Euclidean space and an introduction to general manifolds (with many examples), differential forms and their geometric interpretations, integration of differential forms, Stokes' theorem, and some applications to topology. Prerequisite: Math 61CM.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

MATH 62DM: Modern Mathematics: Discrete Methods

This is the second part of a proof-based sequence in discrete mathematics. This course covers topics in elementary number theory, group theory, and discrete Fourier analysis. For example, we'll discuss the basic examples of abelian groups arising from congruences in elementary number theory, as well as the non-abelian symmetric group of permutations. Prerequisites: 61DM or 61CM.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

MATH 63CM: Modern Mathematics: Continuous Methods

A proof-based course on ordinary differential equations, continuing themes from Math 61CM and Math 62CM. Topics include linear systems of differential equations and necessary tools from linear algebra, stability and asymptotic properties of solutions to linear systems, existence and uniqueness theorems for nonlinear differential equations with some applications to manifolds, behavior of solutions near an equilibrium point, and Sturm-Liouville theory. Prerequisites: Math 61CM and Math 62CM.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

MATH 63DM: Modern Mathematics: Discrete Methods

Third part of a proof-based sequence in discrete mathematics. This course covers several topics in probability (random variables, independence and correlation, concentration bounds, the central limit theorem) and topology (metric spaces, point-set topology, continuous maps, compactness, Brouwer's fixed point and the Borsuk-Ulam theorem), with some applications in combinatorics. Prerequisites: 61DM or 61CM
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Vondrak, J. (PI); Wei, F. (TA)

MATH 79SI: Proof Positive: Principles of Mathematics

What is a mathematical proof, and where do proofs come from? Students will become comfortable with fundamental techniques of mathematical proof through practice with interesting and accessible examples from many areas of math. Students will additionally hone their communication skills and develop their ability to formulate and answer precise mathematical questions. Topics include direct proof, proof by contrapositive, proof by contradiction, many applications of mathematical induction, constructing good definitions, and useful writing habits. The course is designed to prepare students who have completed or are concurrently enrolled in MATH 51 to succeed in introductory proof-based math classes at the level of MATH 115 or MATH 120, or to simply appreciate the nature of proof at a deeper level than is seen in high school geometry. To be considered for enrollment, please email masonr@stanford.edu and attend the first class meeting on Tuesday, April 3 at 3PM in 300-303.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Conrad, B. (PI)

MATH 80Q: Capillary Surfaces: Explored and Unexplored Territory

Preference to sophomores. Capillary surfaces: the interfaces between fluids that are adjacent to each other and do not mix. Recently discovered phenomena, predicted mathematically and subsequently confirmed by experiments, some done in space shuttles. Interested students may participate in ongoing investigations with affinity between mathematics and physics.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Finn, R. (PI)

MATH 87Q: Mathematics of Knots, Braids, Links, and Tangles

Preference to sophomores. Types of knots and how knots can be distinguished from one another by means of numerical or polynomial invariants. The geometry and algebra of braids, including their relationships to knots. Topology of surfaces. Brief summary of applications to biology, chemistry, and physics.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Wieczorek, W. (PI)

MATH 101: Math Discovery Lab

MDL is a discovery-based project course in mathematics. Students work independently in small groups to explore open-ended mathematical problems and discover original mathematics. Students formulate conjectures and hypotheses; test predictions by computation, simulation, or pure thought; and present their results to classmates. No lecture component; in-class meetings reserved for student presentations, attendance mandatory. Admission is by application: http://math101.stanford.edu. Motivated students with any level of mathematical background are encouraged to apply. WIM
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 104: Applied Matrix Theory

Linear algebra for applications in science and engineering: orthogonality, projections, spectral theory for symmetric matrices, the singular value decomposition, the QR decomposition, least-squares, the condition number of a matrix, algorithms for solving linear systems. MATH 113 offers a more theoretical treatment of linear algebra. MATH 104 and EE 103/CME 103 cover complementary topics in applied linear algebra. The focus of MATH 104 is on algorithms and concepts; the focus of EE 103 is on a few linear algebra concepts, and many applications. Prerequisites: MATH 51 and programming experience on par with CS 106.
Terms: Win, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 106: Functions of a Complex Variable

Complex numbers, analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, complex integration, Cauchy integral formula, residues, elementary conformal mappings. (Math 116 offers a more theoretical treatment.) Prerequisite: 52.
Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 107: Graph Theory

An introductory course in graph theory establishing fundamental concepts and results in variety of topics. Topics include: basic notions, connectivity, cycles, matchings, planar graphs, graph coloring, matrix-tree theorem, conditions for hamiltonicity, Kuratowski's theorem, Ramsey and Turan-type theorem. Prerequisites: 51 or equivalent and some familiarity with proofs is required.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 108: Introduction to Combinatorics and Its Applications

Topics: graphs, trees (Cayley's Theorem, application to phylogony), eigenvalues, basic enumeration (permutations, Stirling and Bell numbers), recurrences, generating functions, basic asymptotics. Prerequisites: 51 or equivalent.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Manners, F. (PI); He, J. (TA)

MATH 109: Applied Group Theory

Applications of the theory of groups. Topics: elements of group theory, groups of symmetries, matrix groups, group actions, and applications to combinatorics and computing. Applications: rotational symmetry groups, the study of the Platonic solids, crystallographic groups and their applications in chemistry and physics. Honors math majors and students who intend to do graduate work in mathematics should take 120. WIM.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 110: Applied Number Theory and Field Theory

Number theory and its applications to modern cryptography. Topics: congruences, finite fields, primality testing and factorization, public key cryptography, error correcting codes, and elliptic curves, emphasizing algorithms. WIM.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 113: Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory

Algebraic properties of matrices and their interpretation in geometric terms. The relationship between the algebraic and geometric points of view and matters fundamental to the study and solution of linear equations. Topics: linear equations, vector spaces, linear dependence, bases and coordinate systems; linear transformations and matrices; similarity; eigenvectors and eigenvalues; diagonalization. (Math 104 offers a more application-oriented treatment.)
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 114: Introduction to Scientific Computing (CME 108)

Introduction to Scientific Computing Numerical computation for mathematical, computational, physical sciences and engineering: error analysis, floating-point arithmetic, nonlinear equations, numerical solution of systems of algebraic equations, banded matrices, least squares, unconstrained optimization, polynomial interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, numerical solution of ordinary differential equations, truncation error, numerical stability for time dependent problems and stiffness. Implementation of numerical methods in MATLAB programming assignments. Prerequisites: MATH 51, 52, 53; prior programming experience (MATLAB or other language at level of CS 106A or higher).
Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 115: Functions of a Real Variable

The development of real analysis in Euclidean space: sequences and series, limits, continuous functions, derivatives, integrals. Basic point set topology. Honors math majors and students who intend to do graduate work in mathematics should take 171. Prerequisite: 21.
Terms: Aut, Spr, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 116: Complex Analysis

Analytic functions, Cauchy integral formula, power series and Laurent series, calculus of residues and applications, conformal mapping, analytic continuation, introduction to Riemann surfaces, Fourier series and integrals. (Math 106 offers a less theoretical treatment.) Prerequisites: 52, and 115 or 171.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 118: Mathematics of Computation

Notions of analysis and algorithms central to modern scientific computing: continuous and discrete Fourier expansions, the fast Fourier transform, orthogonal polynomials, interpolation, quadrature, numerical differentiation, analysis and discretization of initial-value and boundary-value ODE, finite and spectral elements. Prerequisites: MATH 51 and 53.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kazeev, V. (PI)

MATH 120: Groups and Rings

Recommended for Mathematics majors and required of honors Mathematics majors. Similar to 109 but altered content and more theoretical orientation. Groups acting on sets, examples of finite groups, Sylow theorems, solvable and simple groups. Fields, rings, and ideals; polynomial rings over a field; PID and non-PID. Unique factorization domains. WIM.
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 121: Galois Theory

Field of fractions, splitting fields, separability, finite fields. Galois groups, Galois correspondence, examples and applications. Prerequisite: Math 120 and (also recommended) 113.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 122: Modules and Group Representations

Modules over PID. Tensor products over fields. Group representations and group rings. Maschke's theorem and character theory. Character tables, construction of representations. Prerequisite: Math 120. Also recommended: 113.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Wilson, J. (PI); Kuhn, N. (TA)

MATH 131P: Partial Differential Equations

An introduction to PDE; particularly suitable for non-Math majors. Topics include physical examples of PDE's, method of characteristics, D'Alembert's formula, maximum principles, heat kernel, Duhamel's principle, separation of variables, Fourier series, Harmonic functions, Bessel functions, spherical harmonics. Students who have taken MATH 171 should consider taking MATH 173 rather than 131P. Prerequisite: 53.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 136: Stochastic Processes (STATS 219)

Introduction to measure theory, Lp spaces and Hilbert spaces. Random variables, expectation, conditional expectation, conditional distribution. Uniform integrability, almost sure and Lp convergence. Stochastic processes: definition, stationarity, sample path continuity. Examples: random walk, Markov chains, Gaussian processes, Poisson processes, Martingales. Construction and basic properties of Brownian motion. Prerequisite: STATS 116 or MATH 151 or equivalent. Recommended: MATH 115 or equivalent. http://statweb.stanford.edu/~adembo/math-136/
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dembo, A. (PI); Hui, Y. (TA)

MATH 143: Differential Geometry

Geometry of curves and surfaces in three-space and higher dimensional manifolds. Parallel transport, curvature, and geodesics. Surfaces with constant curvature. Minimal surfaces.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 146: Analysis on Manifolds

Differentiable manifolds, tangent space, submanifolds, implicit function theorem, differential forms, vector and tensor fields. Frobenius' theorem, DeRham theory. Prerequisite: 62CM or 52 and familiarity with linear algebra and analysis arguments at the level of 113 and 115 respectively.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 147: Differential Topology

Smooth manifolds, transversality, Sards' theorem, embeddings, degree of a map, Borsuk-Ulam theorem, Hopf degree theorem, Jordan curve theorem. Prerequisite: 115 or 171.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 152: Elementary Theory of Numbers

Euclid's algorithm, fundamental theorems on divisibility; prime numbers; congruence of numbers; theorems of Fermat, Euler, Wilson; congruences of first and higher degrees; quadratic residues; introduction to the theory of binary quadratic forms; quadratic reciprocity; partitions.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Tsai, C. (PI)

MATH 155: Analytic Number Theory

Topics in analytic number theory such as the distribution of prime numbers, the prime number theorem, twin primes and Goldbach's conjecture, the theory of quadratic forms, Dirichlet's class number formula, Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions, and the fifteen theorem. Prerequisite: 152, or familiarity with the Euclidean algorithm, congruences, residue classes and reduced residue classes, primitive roots, and quadratic reciprocity.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 158: Basic Probability and Stochastic Processes with Engineering Applications (CME 298)

Calculus of random variables and their distributions with applications. Review of limit theorems of probability and their application to statistical estimation and basic Monte Carlo methods. Introduction to Markov chains, random walks, Brownian motion and basic stochastic differential equations with emphasis on applications from economics, physics and engineering, such as filtering and control. Prerequisites: exposure to basic probability.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ying, L. (PI)

MATH 162: Philosophy of Mathematics (PHIL 162)

Mathematics is a very peculiar human activity. It delivers a type of knowledge that is particularly stable, often conceived as a priori and necessary. Moreover, this knowledge is about abstract entities, which seem to have no connection to us, spatio-temporal creatures, and yet it plays a crucial role in our scientific endeavors. Many philosophical questions emerge naturally: What is the nature of mathematical objects? How can we learn anything about them? Where does the stability of mathematics comes from? What is the significance of results showing the limits of such knowledge, such as Gödel's incompleteness theorem? The first part of the course will survey traditional approaches to philosophy of mathematics ("the big Isms") and consider the viability of their answers to some of the previous questions: logicism, intuitionism, Hilbert's program, empiricism, fictionalism, and structuralism. The second part will focus on philosophical issues emerging from the actual practice of mathematics. We will tackle questions such as: Why do mathematicians re-prove the same theorems? What is the role of visualization in mathematics? How can mathematical knowledge be effective in natural science? To conclude, we will explore the aesthetic dimension of mathematics, focusing on mathematical beauty. Prerequisite: PHIL150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 163: The Greek Invention of Mathematics (CLASSICS 136)

How was mathematics invented? A survey of the main creative ideas of ancient Greek mathematics. Among the issues explored are the axiomatic system of Euclid's Elements, the origins of the calculus in Greek measurements of solids and surfaces, and Archimedes' creation of mathematical physics. We will provide proofs of ancient theorems, and also learn how such theorems are even known today thanks to the recovery of ancient manuscripts.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Netz, R. (PI)

MATH 171: Fundamental Concepts of Analysis

Recommended for Mathematics majors and required of honors Mathematics majors. Similar to 115 but altered content and more theoretical orientation. Properties of Riemann integrals, continuous functions and convergence in metric spaces; compact metric spaces, basic point set topology. Prerequisite: 61CM or 61DM or 115 or consent of the instructor. WIM
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 172: Lebesgue Integration and Fourier Analysis

Similar to 205A, but for undergraduate Math majors and graduate students in other disciplines. Topics include Lebesgue measure on Euclidean space, Lebesgue integration, L^p spaces, the Fourier transform, the Hardy-Littlewood maximal function and Lebesgue differentiation. Prerequisite: 171 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hershkovits, O. (PI)

MATH 173: Theory of Partial Differential Equations

A rigorous introduction to PDE accessible to advanced undergraduates. Elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations in many space dimensions including basic properties of solutions such as maximum principles, causality, and conservation laws. Methods include the Fourier transform as well as more classical methods. The Lebesgue integral will be used throughout, but a summary of its properties will be provided to make the course accessible to students who have not had 172 or 205A. In years when Math 173 is not offered, Math 220 is a recommended alternative (with similar content but a different emphasis). Prerequisite: 171 or equivalent.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 175: Elementary Functional Analysis

Linear operators on Hilbert space. Spectral theory of compact operators; applications to integral equations. Elements of Banach space theory. Prerequisite: 115 or 171.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 177: Geometric Methods in the Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations

Hamiltonian systems and their geometry. First order PDE and Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Structural stability and hyperbolic dynamical systems. Completely integrable systems. Perturbation theory.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 193: Polya Problem Solving Seminar

Topics in mathematics and problem solving strategies with an eye towards the Putnam Competition. Topics may include parity, the pigeonhole principle, number theory, recurrence, generating functions, and probability. Students present solutions to the class. Open to anyone with an interest in mathematics.
Terms: Aut | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

MATH 197: Senior Honors Thesis

Honors math major working on senior honors thesis under an approved advisor carries out research and reading. Satisfactory written account of progress achieved during term must be submitted to advisor before term ends. May be repeated 3 times for a max of 9 units. Contact department student services specialist to enroll.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 1-6 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

MATH 198: Practical Training

Only for undergraduate students majoring in mathematics. Students obtain employment in a relevant industrial or research activity to enhance their professional experience. Students submit a concise report detailing work activities, problems worked on, and key results. May be repeated for credit up to 3 units. Prerequisite: qualified offer of employment and consent of department. Prior approval by Math Department is required; you must contact the Math Department's Student Services staff for instructions before being granted permission to enroll.
Terms: Sum | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Conrad, B. (PI)

MATH 199: Independent Work

For math majors only. Undergraduates pursue a reading program; topics limited to those not in regular department course offerings. Credit can fulfill the elective requirement for math majors. Approval of Undergraduate Affairs Committee is required to use credit for honors majors area requirement. Contact department student services specialist to enroll.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 1-3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 205A: Real Analysis

Basic measure theory and the theory of Lebesgue integration. Prerequisite: 171 or equivalent.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; White, B. (PI); Zhu, B. (TA)

MATH 205B: Real Analysis

Point set topology, basic functional analysis, Fourier series, and Fourier transform. Prerequisites: 171 and 205A or equivalent.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Luk, J. (PI); Cote, L. (TA)

MATH 205C: Real Analysis

Continuation of 205B.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Zhu, X. (PI)

MATH 210A: Modern Algebra I

Basic commutative ring and module theory, tensor algebra, homological constructions, linear and multilinear algebra, canonical forms and Jordan decomposition. Prerequisite: 122 or equivalent.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Church, T. (PI); Dore, D. (TA)

MATH 210B: Modern Algebra II

Continuation of 210A. Topics in field theory, commutative algebra, and algebraic geometry. Prerequisites: 210A, and 121 or equivalent.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 210C: Lie Theory

Topics in Lie groups, Lie algebras, and/or representation theory. Prerequisite: math 210B. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 215A: Algebraic Topology

Topics: fundamental group and covering spaces, basics of homotopy theory, homology and cohomology (simplicial, singular, cellular), products, introduction to topological manifolds, orientations, Poincare duality. Prerequisites: 113, 120, and 171.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 215B: Differential Topology

Topics: Basics of differentiable manifolds (tangent spaces, vector fields, tensor fields, differential forms), embeddings, tubular neighborhoods, integration and Stokes¿ Theorem, deRham cohomology, intersection theory via Poincare duality, Morse theory. Prerequisite: 215A
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cohen, R. (PI); Kuhn, N. (TA)

MATH 215C: Differential Geometry

This course will be an introduction to Riemannian Geometry. Topics will include the Levi-Civita connection, Riemann curvature tensor, Ricci and scalar curvature, geodesics, parallel transport, completeness, geodesics and Jacobi fields, and comparison techniques. Prerequisites 146 or 215B
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hershkovits, O. (PI)

MATH 216A: Introduction to Algebraic Geometry

Algebraic curves, algebraic varieties, sheaves, cohomology, Riemann-Roch theorem. Classification of algebraic surfaces, moduli spaces, deformation theory and obstruction theory, the notion of schemes. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: 210ABC or equivalent.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Vakil, R. (PI)

MATH 216B: Introduction to Algebraic Geometry

Continuation of 216A. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Vakil, R. (PI)

MATH 216C: Introduction to Algebraic Geometry

Continuation of 216B. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kemeny, M. (PI)

MATH 220: Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics (CME 303)

First-order partial differential equations; method of characteristics; weak solutions; elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; Fourier transform; Fourier series; and eigenvalue problems. Prerequisite: Basic coursework in multivariable calculus and ordinary differential equations, and some prior experience with a proof-based treatment of the material as in Math 171 or Math 61CM (formerly Math 51H).
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ryzhik, L. (PI); Liu, F. (TA)

MATH 226: Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations (CME 306)

Hyperbolic partial differential equations: stability, convergence and qualitative properties; nonlinear hyperbolic equations and systems; combined solution methods from elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic problems. Examples include: Burger's equation, Euler equations for compressible flow, Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. Prerequisites: MATH 220A or CME 302.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ying, L. (PI)

MATH 228: Stochastic Methods in Engineering (CME 308, MS&E 324)

The basic limit theorems of probability theory and their application to maximum likelihood estimation. Basic Monte Carlo methods and importance sampling. Markov chains and processes, random walks, basic ergodic theory and its application to parameter estimation. Discrete time stochastic control and Bayesian filtering. Diffusion approximations, Brownian motion and an introduction to stochastic differential equations. Examples and problems from various applied areas. Prerequisites: exposure to probability and background in analysis.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 230A: Theory of Probability I (STATS 310A)

Mathematical tools: sigma algebras, measure theory, connections between coin tossing and Lebesgue measure, basic convergence theorems. Probability: independence, Borel-Cantelli lemmas, almost sure and Lp convergence, weak and strong laws of large numbers. Large deviations. Weak convergence; central limit theorems; Poisson convergence; Stein's method. Prerequisites: 116, MATH 171.
Terms: Aut | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 230B: Theory of Probability II (STATS 310B)

Conditional expectations, discrete time martingales, stopping times, uniform integrability, applications to 0-1 laws, Radon-Nikodym Theorem, ruin problems, etc. Other topics as time allows selected from (i) local limit theorems, (ii) renewal theory, (iii) discrete time Markov chains, (iv) random walk theory,n(v) ergodic theory. Prerequisite: 310A or MATH 230A.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 230C: Theory of Probability III (STATS 310C)

Continuous time stochastic processes: martingales, Brownian motion, stationary independent increments, Markov jump processes and Gaussian processes. Invariance principle, random walks, LIL and functional CLT. Markov and strong Markov property. Infinitely divisible laws. Some ergodic theory. Prerequisite: 310B or MATH 230B. http://statweb.stanford.edu/~adembo/stat-310c/
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 231: Mathematics and Statistics of Gambling (STATS 334)

Probability and statistics are founded on the study of games of chance. Nowadays, gambling (in casinos, sports and the Internet) is a huge business. This course addresses practical and theoretical aspects. Topics covered: mathematics of basic random phenomena (physics of coin tossing and roulette, analysis of various methods of shuffling cards), odds in popular games, card counting, optimal tournament play, practical problems of random number generation. Prerequisites: Statistics 116 and 200.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 233A: Topics in Combinatorics

Geometry of polynomials and non-constructive proofs in combinatorics: The independence polynomial, the Lovasz Local Lemma and Shearer's Lemma. Real-rooted polynomials, stable polynomials, Ramanujan graphs and the Kadison-Singer problem. Strongly Rayleigh measures and negative dependence. Applications in algorithms.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Vondrak, J. (PI)

MATH 236: Introduction to Stochastic Differential Equations

Brownian motion, stochastic integrals, and diffusions as solutions of stochastic differential equations. Functionals of diffusions and their connection with partial differential equations. Random walk approximation of diffusions. Prerequisite: 136 or equivalent and differential equations.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Papanicolaou, G. (PI)

MATH 238: Mathematical Finance (STATS 250)

Stochastic models of financial markets. Forward and futures contracts. European options and equivalent martingale measures. Hedging strategies and management of risk. Term structure models and interest rate derivatives. Optimal stopping and American options. Corequisites: MATH 236 and 227 or equivalent.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Papanicolaou, G. (PI)

MATH 244: Riemann Surfaces

Riemann surfaces and holomorphic maps, algebraic curves, maps to projective spaces. Calculus on Riemann surfaces. Elliptic functions and integrals. Riemann-Hurwitz formula. Riemann-Roch theorem, Abel-Jacobi map. Uniformization theorem. Hyperbolic surfaces. (Suitable for advanced undergraduates.) Prerequisites: MATH 106 or MATH 116, and familiarity with surfaces equivalent to MATH 143, MATH 146, or MATH 147.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Mazzeo, R. (PI)

MATH 245B: Topics in Algebraic Geometry

May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Li, J. (PI)

MATH 249A: Topics in number theory

Topics of contemporary interest in number theory. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Soundararajan, K. (PI)

MATH 249B: Topics in Number Theory

Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Tsai, C. (PI)

MATH 256B: Partial Differential Equations

Continuation of 256A.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Weinstein, M. (PI)

MATH 257B: Symplectic Geometry and Topology

Continuation of 257A. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ionel, E. (PI)

MATH 257C: Symplectic Geometry and Topology

Continuation of 257B. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Latschev, J. (PI)

MATH 263C: Topics in Representation Theory

May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bump, D. (PI)

MATH 271: The H-Principle

The language of jets. Thom transversality theorem. Holonomic approximation theorem. Applications: immersion theory and its generaliazations. Differential relations and Gromov's h-principle for open manifolds. Applications to symplectic geometry. Microflexibility. Mappings with simple singularities and their applications. Method of convex integration. Nash-Kuiper C^1-isometric embedding theorem.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Eliashberg, Y. (PI)

MATH 272: Topics in Partial Differential Equations

Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Galkowski, J. (PI)

MATH 282A: Low Dimensional Topology

The theory of surfaces and 3-manifolds. Curves on surfaces, the classification of diffeomorphisms of surfaces, and Teichmuller space. The mapping class group and the braid group. Knot theory, including knot invariants. Decomposition of 3-manifolds: triangulations, Heegaard splittings, Dehn surgery. Loop theorem, sphere theorem, incompressible surfaces. Geometric structures, particularly hyperbolic structures on surfaces and 3-manifolds. May be repeated for credit up to 6 total units.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kerckhoff, S. (PI)

MATH 282B: Homotopy Theory

Homotopy groups, fibrations, spectral sequences, simplicial methods, Dold-Thom theorem, models for loop spaces, homotopy limits and colimits, stable homotopy theory. May be repeated for credit up to 6 total units.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Perlmutter, N. (PI)

MATH 282C: Fiber Bundles and Cobordism

Possible topics: principal bundles, vector bundles, classifying spaces. Connections on bundles, curvature. Topology of gauge groups and gauge equivalence classes of connections. Characteristic classes and K-theory, including Bott periodicity, algebraic K-theory, and indices of elliptic operators. Spectral sequences of Atiyah-Hirzebruch, Serre, and Adams. Cobordism theory, Pontryagin-Thom theorem, calculation of unoriented and complex cobordism. May be repeated for credit up to 6 total units.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Galatius, S. (PI)

MATH 283A: Topics in Topology

Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Galatius, S. (PI)

MATH 298: Graduate Practical Training

Only for mathematics graduate students. Students obtain employment in a relevant industrial or research activity to enhance their professional experience. Students submit a concise report detailing work activities, problems worked on, and key results. May be repeated for credit up to 3 units. Prerequisite: qualified offer of employment and consent of department. Prior approval by Math Department is required; you must contact the Math Department's Student Services staff for instructions before being granted permission to enroll.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ryzhik, L. (PI)

MATH 355: Graduate Teaching Seminar

Required of and limited to first-year Mathematics graduate students.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

MATH 382: Qualifying Examination Seminar

Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 1-3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ryzhik, L. (PI)
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