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LINGUIST 30N: Linguistic Meaning and the Law

We will investigate how inherent properties of language, such as ambiguity, vagueness and context-dependence, play into the meaning of a legal text, and how the meaning of a law can remain invariant while its range of application can change with the facts and with our discovery of what the facts are. Our focus will be on the perspective linguistic analysis brings to legal theory, addressing current controversies surrounding different conceptions of `textualism¿ and drawing on well-known examples of legal reasoning about language in cases of identity fraud, obstruction of justice and genocide.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Condoravdi, C. (PI)

LINGUIST 35: Minds and Machines (PHIL 99, PSYCH 35, SYMSYS 1, SYMSYS 200)

(Formerly SYMSYS 100). An overview of the interdisciplinary study of cognition, information, communication, and language, with an emphasis on foundational issues: What are minds? What is computation? What are rationality and intelligence? Can we predict human behavior? Can computers be truly intelligent? How do people and technology interact, and how might they do so in the future? Lectures focus on how the methods of philosophy, mathematics, empirical research, and computational modeling are used to study minds and machines. Undergraduates considering a major in symbolic systems should take this course as early as possible in their program of study.
Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 55N: Language in the City

Language communicates a great deal more than the meaning of our words. Our regional accents, for example, offer clues about where we grew up. And even though accents are usually labeled in geographical terms, their symbolic meanings extend far beyond mere coordinates on a map. When we hear a New Yorker, we not only wonder whether they¿re from Brooklyn, but also conjecture about the kind of person they are: they might prefer to walk down the street quickly over strolling, they might enjoy lively conversations where people talk over one another, and they might tend to express their opinions bluntly. This seminar explores the linguistic practices and social meaning of accents spoken in San Francisco. nClass participants will collectively choose a neighborhood in San Francisco for in-depth examination. Through a series of field trips (once every two or three weeks), students will document the varieties of English spoken by lifelong residents of the neighborhood. Field assignments will consist primarily of observation and audio-recorded interviews. Interviews will serve as data for linguistic analysis (transcription, quantitative analysis of a linguistic feature of interest) throughout the term. Linguistic patterns will be analyzed in relation to salient social issues in the community, which will be identified in both interview content and historical records.nUpon completing the seminar, students will have (a) learned how to treat language as an object of scientific analysis, (b) developed an understanding of the social ramifications of linguistic practice, (c) gained fieldwork skills in general and interviewing skills in particular, and (d) come to appreciate the diversity of experiences in an urban community near Stanford.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Podesva, R. (PI)

LINGUIST 65: African American Vernacular English (AFRICAAM 21, CSRE 21, LINGUIST 265)

Vocabulary, pronunciation and grammatical features of the systematic and vibrant vernacular English [AAVE] spoken by African Americans in the US, its historical relation to British dialects, and to English creoles spoken on the S. Carolina Sea Islands (Gullah), in the Caribbean, and in W. Africa. The course will also explore the role of AAVE in the Living Arts of African Americans, as exemplified by writers, preachers, comedians and actors, singers, toasters and rappers, and its connections with challenges that AAVE speakers face in the classroom and courtroom. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). UNITS: 3-5 units. Most students should register for 4 units. Students willing and able to tutor an AAVE speaking child in East Palo Alto and write an additional paper about the experience may register for 5 units, but should consult the instructor first. Students who, for exceptional reasons, need a reduced course load, may request a reduction to 3 units, but more of their course grade will come from exams, and they will be excluded from group participation in the popular AAVE Happenin at the end of the course.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, GER:EC-AmerCul, WAY-ED | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 83Q: Translation

Preference to Sophomores. What is a translation? The increased need for translations in the modern world due to factors such as tourism and terrorism, localization and globalization, diplomacy and treaties, law and religion, and literature and science. How to meet this need; different kinds of translation for different purposes; what makes one translation better than another; why some texts are more difficult to translate than others. Can some of this work be done by machines? Are there things that cannot be said in some languages?
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kay, M. (PI)

LINGUIST 90: Teaching Spoken English

Practical approach to teaching English to non-native speakers. Teaching principles and the features of English which present difficulties. Preparation of lessons, practice teaching in class, and tutoring of non-native speaker.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Geda, K. (PI)

LINGUIST 105: Phonetics (LINGUIST 205A)

Phonetics is the systematic study of speech. In this class, we will learn about the physical gestures and timing involved in the articulation of spoken language and about the resulting acoustic signal that is decoded into linguistic units by the human auditory system. The class is structured into two parts: A practical lab component, and a class component. This course highlights both the complexity of the physical nature of producing spoken language, and the highly variable acoustic signal that is interpreted by listeners as language. By the end of this course, you should: (1) Understand the process of preparing an utterance to articulating it; (2) Understand the basic acoustic properties of speech; (3) Provide detailed phonetic transcriptions of speech; (4) Produce and understand the gestures involved in nearly all of the world's speech sounds, and (5) Understand the ways this knowledge can be used to advance our understanding of spoken language understanding by humans and machines.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 121A: The Syntax of English

A data-driven introduction to the study of generative syntax through an in-depth investigation of the sentence structure of English. Emphasis is on central aspects of English syntax, but the principles of theory and analysis extend to the study of the syntax of other languages. The course focuses on building up syntactic argumentation skills via the collective development of a partial formal theory of sentence structure, which attempts to model native speaker knowledge. Satisfies the WIM requirement for Linguistics and the WAY-FR requirement. Prerequisites: none (can be taken before or after Linguistics 121B). The discussion section is mandatory.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 130A: Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics (LINGUIST 230A)

Linguistic meaning and its role in communication. Topics include logical semantics, conversational implicature, presupposition, and speech acts. Applications to issues in politics, the law, philosophy, advertising, and natural language processing. Those who have not taken logic, such as PHIL 150 or 151, should attend section. Pre- or corequisite: 120, 121, consent of instructor, or graduate standing in Linguistics.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 130B: Introduction to Lexical Semantics

Introduction to basic concepts and issues in the linguistic study of word meaning. We explore grammatical regularities in word meaning and the relation between word meaning and the conceptual realm. The questions we address include the following. How is the meaning of a word determined from its internal structure?  How can simple words have complex meanings?  What is a possible word?  How does a word's meaning determine the word's syntactic distribution and what kind of reasoning does it support? What kind of information belongs to the lexical entry of a word?  The course will show that the investigation of the linguistic and semantic structure of words draws on the full resources of linguistic theory and methodology. Prerequisites: Linguist 1 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. Linguist 130A is not a prerequisite for this course.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 152: Sociolinguistics and Pidgin Creole Studies (LINGUIST 252)

Introduction to pidgins and creoles, organized around the main stages in the pidgin-creole life cycle: pidginization, creolization, and decreolization. Focus is on transformations in the English language as it was transported from Britain to Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and the Pacific. Resultant pidginized and creolized varieties such as Nigerian Pidgin English, Chinese Pidgin English, New Guinea Tok Pisin, Suriname Sranan, and the creole continua of Guyana, Jamaica, and Hawaii. Also French, Dutch, Portugese, Chinook, Motu, and Sango.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Rickford, J. (PI)

LINGUIST 156: Language and Gender (FEMGEN 156X)

The role of language in the construction of gender, the maintenance of the gender order, and social change. Field projects explore hypotheses about the interaction of language and gender. No knowledge of linguistics required.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, GER:EC-Gender, WAY-ED, WAY-SI | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 157: Sociophonetics (LINGUIST 257)

The study of phonetic aspects of sociolinguistic variation and the social significance of phonetic variation. Acoustic analysis of vowels, consonants, prosody, and voice quality. Hands-on work on collaborative research project. Prerequisite: 105, 110 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 1-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Podesva, R. (PI)

LINGUIST 180: From Languages to Information (CS 124, LINGUIST 280)

Extracting meaning, information, and structure from human language text, speech, web pages, social networks. Methods include: string algorithms, edit distance, language modeling, the noisy channel, machine learning classifiers, inverted indices, collaborative filtering, neural embeddings, PageRank. Applications such as question answering, sentiment analysis, information retrieval, text classification, social network models, spell checking, recommender systems, chatbots. Prerequisites: CS103, CS107, CS109.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 188: Natural Language Understanding (CS 224U, LINGUIST 288)

Project-oriented class focused on developing systems and algorithms for robust machine understanding of human language. Draws on theoretical concepts from linguistics, natural language processing, and machine learning. Topics include lexical semantics, distributed representations of meaning, relation extraction, semantic parsing, sentiment analysis, and dialogue agents, with special lectures on developing projects, presenting research results, and making connections with industry. Prerequisites: one of LINGUIST 180, CS 124, CS 224N, CS224S, or CS221; and logical/semantics such as LINGUIST 130A or B, CS 157, or PHIL150
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 191: Linguistics and the Teaching of English as a Second/Foreign Language (LINGUIST 291)

Methodology and techniques for teaching languages, using concepts from linguistics and second language acquisition theory and research. Focus is on teaching English, but most principles and techniques applicable to any language. Optional 1-unit seminar in computer-assisted language learning.
Terms: Win | Units: 4-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 195A: Undergraduate Research Workshop

Designed for undergraduates beginning or working on research projects in linguistics. Participants present and receive feedback on their projects and receive tips on the research and writing process.
Terms: Win, Spr | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Leigh, D. (PI)

LINGUIST 197A: Undergraduate Research Seminar

Senior capstone seminar. Joint readings in an annually varying topic, exploring the implications and importance of linguistic research for other domains of knowledge or practice.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jurafsky, D. (PI)

LINGUIST 200: Foundations of Linguistic Theory

Restricted to Linguistics Ph.D. students. Theories that have shaped contemporary linguistics; recurrent themes and descriptive practice. Strong background in Linguistics or permission of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 205A: Phonetics (LINGUIST 105)

Phonetics is the systematic study of speech. In this class, we will learn about the physical gestures and timing involved in the articulation of spoken language and about the resulting acoustic signal that is decoded into linguistic units by the human auditory system. The class is structured into two parts: A practical lab component, and a class component. This course highlights both the complexity of the physical nature of producing spoken language, and the highly variable acoustic signal that is interpreted by listeners as language. By the end of this course, you should: (1) Understand the process of preparing an utterance to articulating it; (2) Understand the basic acoustic properties of speech; (3) Provide detailed phonetic transcriptions of speech; (4) Produce and understand the gestures involved in nearly all of the world's speech sounds, and (5) Understand the ways this knowledge can be used to advance our understanding of spoken language understanding by humans and machines.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 210A: Phonology

Introduction to phonological theory and analysis based on cross-linguistic evidence. Topics: phonological representations including features, syllables, metrical structure; phonological processes; phonological rules and constraints; phonological typology and universals; the phonology/morphology interface; Optimality Theory and Harmonic Grammar.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Anttila, A. (PI)

LINGUIST 211: Metrics

Principles of versification from a linguistic point of view. Traditional and optimality-theoretic approaches. The canonical system of English metrics, and its varieties and offshoots. The typology of metrical systems and its linguistic basis. Meter and performance.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kiparsky, P. (PI)

LINGUIST 222B: Foundations of Syntactic Theory II

The nature of unbounded dependency constructions such as constituent questions, topicalization, relative clauses, and clefts, among others. Topics include A-bar movement, constraints on extraction, successive cyclicity, as well as variation in the way unbounded dependencies are established crosslinguistically. Prerequisite: 222A.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gribanov, V. (PI)

LINGUIST 225: Seminar in Syntax: Distributed Morphology

Seminar on advanced topics in syntax. Topics may vary from year to year. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gribanov, V. (PI)

LINGUIST 225S: Syntax and Morphology Research Seminar

Presentation of ongoing research in syntax and morphology. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gribanov, V. (PI)

LINGUIST 230A: Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics (LINGUIST 130A)

Linguistic meaning and its role in communication. Topics include logical semantics, conversational implicature, presupposition, and speech acts. Applications to issues in politics, the law, philosophy, advertising, and natural language processing. Those who have not taken logic, such as PHIL 150 or 151, should attend section. Pre- or corequisite: 120, 121, consent of instructor, or graduate standing in Linguistics.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 230B: Semantics and Pragmatics I

The primary goal of this course is to cover advanced topics in semantics and pragmatics that are central to research in those fields. The course is aimed at advanced graduate students who plan to do research in semantics, pragmatics, or philosophy of language. Prerequisites: LINGUIST 130A/230A or permission from instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lassiter, D. (PI)

LINGUIST 236: Seminar in Semantics: Causation

Discussion of theories of causation, causal reasoning, and their expression in natural language. Prerequisite: 230A, or 232A, or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 245B: Methods in Psycholinguistics

Over the past ten years, linguists have become increasingly interested in testing theories with a wider range of empirical data than the traditionally accepted introspective judgments of hand-selected linguistic examples. Consequently, linguistics has seen a surge of interest in psycholinguistic methods across all subfields. This course will provide an overview of various standard psycholinguistic techniques and measures, including offline judgments (e.g., binary categorization tasks like truth-value judgments, Likert scale ratings, continuous slider ratings), response times, reading times, eye-tracking, ERPs, and corpus methods. Students will present and discuss research articles. Students will also run an experiment (either a replication or an original design, if conducive to the student¿s research) to gain hands-on experience with experimental design and implementation in html/javascript and Mechanical Turk; data management, analysis, and visualization in R; and open science tools like git/github.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Degen, J. (PI)

LINGUIST 252: Sociolinguistics and Pidgin Creole Studies (LINGUIST 152)

Introduction to pidgins and creoles, organized around the main stages in the pidgin-creole life cycle: pidginization, creolization, and decreolization. Focus is on transformations in the English language as it was transported from Britain to Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and the Pacific. Resultant pidginized and creolized varieties such as Nigerian Pidgin English, Chinese Pidgin English, New Guinea Tok Pisin, Suriname Sranan, and the creole continua of Guyana, Jamaica, and Hawaii. Also French, Dutch, Portugese, Chinook, Motu, and Sango.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Rickford, J. (PI)

LINGUIST 255L: Seminar in Sociolinguistics: Multiracial Identity in Variation Studies

This course confronts the challenge of investigating linguistic variation among multiracial speakers. Hands-on individual and collaborative projects using the voices of California corpus. Prerequisite: Linguistics 258 or equivalent, no exceptions.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Podesva, R. (PI)

LINGUIST 257: Sociophonetics (LINGUIST 157)

The study of phonetic aspects of sociolinguistic variation and the social significance of phonetic variation. Acoustic analysis of vowels, consonants, prosody, and voice quality. Hands-on work on collaborative research project. Prerequisite: 105, 110 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 1-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Podesva, R. (PI)

LINGUIST 260B: Historical Morphosyntax

Morphological and syntactic variation and change. Reanalysis, grammaticalization. The use of corpora and quantitative evidence. This is a 4-unit course. May be taken for fewer units with prior approval of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 265: African American Vernacular English (AFRICAAM 21, CSRE 21, LINGUIST 65)

Vocabulary, pronunciation and grammatical features of the systematic and vibrant vernacular English [AAVE] spoken by African Americans in the US, its historical relation to British dialects, and to English creoles spoken on the S. Carolina Sea Islands (Gullah), in the Caribbean, and in W. Africa. The course will also explore the role of AAVE in the Living Arts of African Americans, as exemplified by writers, preachers, comedians and actors, singers, toasters and rappers, and its connections with challenges that AAVE speakers face in the classroom and courtroom. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). UNITS: 3-5 units. Most students should register for 4 units. Students willing and able to tutor an AAVE speaking child in East Palo Alto and write an additional paper about the experience may register for 5 units, but should consult the instructor first. Students who, for exceptional reasons, need a reduced course load, may request a reduction to 3 units, but more of their course grade will come from exams, and they will be excluded from group participation in the popular AAVE Happenin at the end of the course.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 272: Structure of Finnish

Central topics in Finnish morphology, syntax, and semantics and how they bear on current theoretical debates. Topics: clause structure; case; aspect; word order.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 280: From Languages to Information (CS 124, LINGUIST 180)

Extracting meaning, information, and structure from human language text, speech, web pages, social networks. Methods include: string algorithms, edit distance, language modeling, the noisy channel, machine learning classifiers, inverted indices, collaborative filtering, neural embeddings, PageRank. Applications such as question answering, sentiment analysis, information retrieval, text classification, social network models, spell checking, recommender systems, chatbots. Prerequisites: CS103, CS107, CS109.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 284: Natural Language Processing with Deep Learning (CS 224N)

Methods for processing human language information and the underlying computational properties of natural languages. Focus on deep learning approaches: understanding, implementing, training, debugging, visualizing, and extending neural network models for a variety of language understanding tasks. Exploration of natural language tasks ranging from simple word level and syntactic processing to coreference, question answering, and machine translation. Examination of representative papers and systems and completion of a final project applying a complex neural network model to a large-scale NLP problem. Prerequisites: calculus and linear algebra; CS124 or CS121/221.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 286: Information Retrieval and Web Search (CS 276)

Text information retrieval systems; efficient text indexing; Boolean, vector space, and probabilistic retrieval models; ranking and rank aggregation; evaluating IR systems; text clustering and classification; Web search engines including crawling and indexing, link-based algorithms, web metadata, and question answering; distributed word representations. Prerequisites: CS 107, CS 109, CS 161.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 288: Natural Language Understanding (CS 224U, LINGUIST 188)

Project-oriented class focused on developing systems and algorithms for robust machine understanding of human language. Draws on theoretical concepts from linguistics, natural language processing, and machine learning. Topics include lexical semantics, distributed representations of meaning, relation extraction, semantic parsing, sentiment analysis, and dialogue agents, with special lectures on developing projects, presenting research results, and making connections with industry. Prerequisites: one of LINGUIST 180, CS 124, CS 224N, CS224S, or CS221; and logical/semantics such as LINGUIST 130A or B, CS 157, or PHIL150
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 291: Linguistics and the Teaching of English as a Second/Foreign Language (LINGUIST 191)

Methodology and techniques for teaching languages, using concepts from linguistics and second language acquisition theory and research. Focus is on teaching English, but most principles and techniques applicable to any language. Optional 1-unit seminar in computer-assisted language learning.
Terms: Win | Units: 4-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

LINGUIST 395: Research Workshop

Restricted to Linguistics Ph.D. students. Student presentations of research toward qualifying papers. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1-2 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jurafsky, D. (PI)

LINGUIST 396: Research Projects in Linguistics

Mentored research project for first-year graduate students in linguistics.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-3 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
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