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ESS 10SC: In the Age of the Anthropocene: Coupled-Human Natural Systems of Southeast Alaska

Southeast Alaska is often described as America's "last frontier," embodying a physical reality of the "pristine" that was once revered by the early romantics and founders of the modern conservation movement throughout Western North America. Although endowed with more designated Wilderness land than any other state, Alaska remains a working landscape: a mixed cash-subsistence economy where communities rely upon the harvest and export of natural resources. Here, ecosystem services remain tangible, and people living in communities that are unconnected by roads confront questions of sustainability on a daily basis. This field-based course introduces students to the global questions of land use change and sustainable resource management in the American West through the place-based exploration of Southeast Alaska. Focused on four key social-ecological challenges -- fisheries, forestry, tourism, and energy -- the coupled human-natural systems of Southeast Alaska provide a unique lens for students to interpret broader resource management and conservation issues. The curriculum balances field explorations and classroom lectures with community exploration in which students will engage with fishermen, hatchery workers, forest managers, loggers, mill owners, tour operators, tourists, city officials, citizens, and Native residents. Students will catch their own salmon, walk through old-growth and logged forests, kayak next to glacial moraines, and witness the impacts of human activities, both local and global, on the social-ecological systems around them. In the context of rapidly changing ecosystems, students will confront the historical, ecological, and economic complexities of environmental stewardship in this region. By embedding their experiences within frameworks of land change science, land-ocean interactions, ecosystem ecology, and natural resource management and economics, students will leave this course ready to apply what they have learned to the global challenges of sustainability and conservation that pervade systems far beyond Alaska. This course is co-sponsored by the School of Earth Sciences and takes place in Sitka, Alaska. Students arrange for their arrival at the seminar's point of origin; all subsequent travel is made possible by Sophomore College and the School of Earth Sciences.
Terms: Sum | Units: 2 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Dunbar, R. (PI)

ESS 38N: The Worst Journey in the World: The Science, Literature, and History of Polar Exploration (EARTHSYS 38N, GEOLSCI 38N)

This course examines the motivations and experiences of polar explorers under the harshest conditions on Earth, as well as the chronicles of their explorations and hardships, dating to the 1500s for the Arctic and the 1700s for the Antarctic. Materials include The Worst Journey in the World by Aspley Cherry-Garrard who in 1911 participated in a midwinter Antarctic sledging trip to recover emperor penguin eggs. Optional field trip into the high Sierra in March.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 40: Approaching Palau: Preparation and Research Ideation and Development (CEE 40)

This class is a seminar designed to prepare students participating in the 2019 Palau Seminar for possible research activities. Enrollment by approval of the instructors.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

ESS 46N: Exploring the Critical Interface between the Land and Monterey Bay: Elkhorn Slough (EARTHSYS 46N)

Preference to freshmen. Field trips to sites in the Elkhorn Slough, a small agriculturally impacted estuary that opens into Monterey Bay, a model ecosystem for understanding the complexity of estuaries, and one of California's last remaining coastal wetlands. Readings include Jane Caffrey's Changes in a California Estuary: A Profile of Elkhorn Slough. Basics of biogeochemistry, microbiology, oceanography, ecology, pollution, and environmental management.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Francis, C. (PI)

ESS 86N: The Most Rational People in the World

Humans, broadly construed, emerged as bipedal apes in the African mixed savanna-woodlands approximately two million years ago. From humble beginnings, humans have gone on to be become the ecologically dominant species in most biomes and grown to a global population in excess of seven billion. This dominance arises from a combination of features of the human organism including its extreme degree of behavioral flexibility and flexible social organization. The prima facie evidence of human evolutionary and ecological success raises a paradox with respect to recent work in economics and psychology which increasingly argues for pervasive irrationality in human decision-making in a wide array of behavioral contexts. How is it possible for an organism with such seemingly flawed software supporting decision-making to become the globally dominant species? We will use this contradiction as the launching point for understanding what rationality means in a broad ecological and cross-cultural context. What do we mean by `rationality¿? How do different disciplines conceive of rationality in different ways? Is there such a thing as a rationality that transcends cultural differences or is the very idea of rationality a cultural construction that is used to justify imperialism and other modes of paternalism? Are there systematic factors that promote or impede rational decision-making? The seminar will provide a gentle introduction to the formal approaches of decision theory which we will apply to an unusual array of topics centered on the subsistence and reproductive decisions of hunter-gatherers, horticulturalists, pastoralists, and agrarian peasants, in short, people living in face-to-face, subsistence societies. In addition to doing reading from a broad array of social and natural science disciplines around the topic of rationality, students will regularly engage in exercises to assess their own approaches to decision-making.
Terms: Sum | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SI | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jones, J. (PI)

ESS 102: Scientific Basis of Climate Change (ESS 202)

This course explores the scientific basis of anthropogenic climate change. We will read the original papers that established the scientific foundation for the climate change forecast. Starting with Fourier¿s description of the greenhouse effect, we trace the history of the key insights into how humanity is perturbing the climate system. The course is based on ¿The Warming Papers,¿ edited by David Archer and Raymond Pierrehumbert. Participants take turns presenting and leading a discussion of the papers and of Archer and Pierrehumbert¿s commentary.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Sheshadri, A. (PI)

ESS 106: World Food Economy (EARTHSYS 106, EARTHSYS 206, ECON 106, ECON 206, ESS 206)

The economics of food production, consumption, and trade. The micro- and macro- determinants of food supply and demand, including the interrelationship among food, income, population, and public-sector decision making. Emphasis on the role of agriculture in poverty alleviation, economic development, and environmental outcomes. Grades based on mid-term exam and group modeling project and presentation. Enrollment is by application only and will be capped at 25, with priority given to upper level undergraduates in Economics and Earth Systems and graduate students (graduate students enroll in 206).
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SI | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Naylor, R. (PI)

ESS 108: Research Preparation for Undergraduates

For undergraduates planning to conduct research during the summer with faculty through the MUIR and SUPER programs. Readings, oral presentations, proposal development. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Spr | Units: 1 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Field, C. (PI)

ESS 109: Biological and Social Networks (ESS 209)

This course introduces the analysis of social and biological networks with a focus on field data collected by interdisciplinary environmental and health scientists. Beginning from the premise that structure emerges from relationships between individual entities, we will concentrate in particular on the measurement of relationships, emphasizing especially practical methodology for mixed-method fieldwork suitable for interdisciplinary biosocial sciences (e.g., earth system science, epidemiology, demography, anthropology, conservation science). Topics include: social relationships in humans and other animals, ecological networks (e.g., trophic and mutualistic interactions), epidemiological networks, research design for collecting relational data, naturalistic observation, ethnographic network methods, sampling, data quality, missing data, graphs and graph theory, structural measures (e.g., density, centrality and centralization, clustering and community detection, embeddedness), network evolution, network diffusion, emergence, egocentric networks, multi-mode/multi-layer networks, inference for sampled networks. All computation and visualization will be done in R so some familiarity is assumed.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Jones, J. (PI)

ESS 111: Biology and Global Change (BIO 117, EARTHSYS 111)

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or BIO 81 or graduate standing.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 112: Human Society and Environmental Change (EARTHSYS 112, EARTHSYS 212, HISTORY 103D)

Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding human-environment interactions with a focus on economics, policy, culture, history, and the role of the state. Prerequisite: ECON 1.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SI | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 118X: Shaping the Future of the Bay Area (CEE 118X, CEE 218X, ESS 218X, GEOLSCI 118X, GEOLSCI 218X, GEOPHYS 118X, GEOPHYS 218X, POLISCI 224X, PUBLPOL 118X)

The complex urban problems affecting quality of life in the Bay Area, from housing affordability and transportation congestion to economic vitality and social justice, are already perceived by many to be intractable, and will likely be exacerbated by climate change and other emerging environmental and technological forces. Changing urban systems to improve the equity, resilience and sustainability of communities will require new collaborative methods of assessment, goal setting, and problem solving across governments, markets, and communities. It will also require academic institutions to develop new models of co-production of knowledge across research, education, and practice. This XYZ course series is designed to immerse students in co-production for social change. The course sequence covers scientific research and ethical reasoning, skillsets in data-driven and qualitative analysis, and practical experience working with local partners on urban challenges that can empower students to drive responsible systems change in their future careers. The Autumn (X) course is specifically focused on concepts and skills, and completion is a prerequisite for participation in the Winter (Y) and/or Spring (Z) practicum quarters, which engage teams in real-world projects with Bay Area local governments or community groups. X is composed of four modules: (A) participation in two weekly classes which prominently feature experts in research and practice related to urban systems; (B) reading and writing assignments designed to deepen thinking on class topics; (C) fundamental data analysis skills, particularly focused on Excel and ArcGIS, taught in lab sessions through basic exercises; (D) advanced data analysis skills, particularly focused on geocomputation in R, taught through longer and more intensive assignments. X can be taken for 3 units (ABC), 4 units (ACD), or 5 units (ABCD). Open to undergraduate and graduate students in any major. For more information, visit http://bay.stanford.edu.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SI | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 118Y: Shaping the Future of the Bay Area (CEE 118Y, CEE 218Y, ESS 218Y, GEOPHYS 118Y, GEOPHYS 218Y)

Students are placed in small interdisciplinary teams (engineers and non-engineers, undergraduate and graduate level) to work on complex design, engineering, and policy problems presented by external partners in a real urban setting. Multiple projects are offered and may span both Winter and Spring quarters; students are welcome to participate in one or both quarters. Students are expected to interact professionally with government and community stakeholders, conduct independent team work outside of class sessions, and submit deliverables over a series of milestones. Prerequisite: the Autumn (X) skills course or approval of instructors. For information about the projects and application process, visit http://bay.stanford.edu.
Terms: Win | Units: 1-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 123: Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions (EARTHSYS 123A, EARTHSYS 223, ESS 223)

How do ecosystems respond to climate, and how do ecosystems influence climate? Covers the role of the terrestrial land surface in earth's climate system, including among others photosynthesis, transpiration, greenhouse gasses, radiation, and atmospheric water vapor. For each of these topics, attention is paid to both the underlying processes and how they can be mathematically represented in earth system models. Instruments and techniques used to measure these processes are also discussed, and, where appropriate, demonstrated.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 135: Community Leadership

Offered through Residential Education to residents of Castano House, Manzanita Park. Topics include: emotional intelligence, leadership styles, listening, facilitating meetings, group dynamics and motivation, finding purpose, fostering resilience. Students will lead discussions on personal development, relationships, risky behaviors, race, ethnicity, spirituality, integrity.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 1-2 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jones, J. (PI)

ESS 141: Remote Sensing of the Oceans (EARTHSYS 141, EARTHSYS 241, ESS 241, GEOPHYS 141)

How to observe and interpret physical and biological changes in the oceans using satellite technologies. Topics: principles of satellite remote sensing, classes of satellite remote sensors, converting radiometric data into biological and physical quantities, sensor calibration and validation, interpreting large-scale oceanographic features.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

ESS 143: Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, EARTHSYS 143, ESS 243)

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Welander, P. (PI)

ESS 148: Introduction to Physical Oceanography (CEE 162D, CEE 262D, EARTHSYS 164)

Formerly CEE 164. The dynamic basis of oceanography. Topics: physical environment; conservation equations for salt, heat, and momentum; geostrophic flows; wind-driven flows; the Gulf Stream; equatorial dynamics and ENSO; thermohaline circulation of the deep oceans; and tides. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 41 (formerly 53).
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Monismith, S. (PI)

ESS 151: Biological Oceanography (EARTHSYS 151, EARTHSYS 251, ESS 251)

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (ESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and ESS 8 or equivalent.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

ESS 152: Marine Chemistry (EARTHSYS 152, EARTHSYS 252, ESS 252)

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (ESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Casciotti, K. (PI)

ESS 155: Science of Soils (EARTHSYS 155)

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Fendorf, S. (PI)

ESS 162: Remote Sensing of Land (EARTHSYS 142, EARTHSYS 242, ESS 262)

The use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover, with emphasis on terrestrial changes. Topics include pre-processing data, biophysical properties of vegetation observable by satellite, accuracy assessment of maps derived from remote sensing, and methodologies to detect changes such as urbanization, deforestation, vegetation health, and wildfires.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lyons, E. (PI)

ESS 164: Fundamentals of Geographic Information Science (GIS) (EARTHSYS 144)

Survey of geographic information including maps, satellite imagery, and census data, approaches to spatial data, and tools for integrating and examining spatially-explicit data. Emphasis is on fundamental concepts of geographic information science and associated technologies. Topics include geographic data structure, cartography, remotely sensed data, statistical analysis of geographic data, spatial analysis, map design, and geographic information system software. Computer lab assignments. All students are required to attend a weekly lab session.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 165: Advanced Geographic Information Systems (ESS 265)

Building on the Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems course, this class delves deeper into geospatial analysis and mapping techniques. The class is heavily project-based and students are encouraged to bring their own research questions. Topics include topographic analysis, interpolation, spatial statistics, network analysis, and scripting using Python and Acrpy. All students are required to attend a weekly lab. ESS 164 or equivalent is a prerequisite.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Lyons, E. (PI)

ESS 170: Analyzing land use in a globalized world (ESS 270)

This course examines the dynamics of land use in relation to globalization. The objective is to understand how the expansion of global trade, and public and private regulations affect land use changes. The course will enable students to better understand how to effectively influence land use change, from different vantage points (government, NGO, corporate actor¿). The main emphasis is on tropical regions. Lectures introduce theories, practical cases, and evaluation tools to better understand contemporary land use dynamics.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Lambin, E. (PI)

ESS 179S: Seminar: Issues in Environmental Science, Technology and Sustainability (CEE 179S, CEE 279S, EARTHSYS 179S)

Invited faculty, researchers and professionals share their insights and perspectives on a broad range of environmental and sustainability issues. Students critique seminar presentations and associated readings.
Terms: Sum | Units: 1-2 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

ESS 202: Scientific Basis of Climate Change (ESS 102)

This course explores the scientific basis of anthropogenic climate change. We will read the original papers that established the scientific foundation for the climate change forecast. Starting with Fourier¿s description of the greenhouse effect, we trace the history of the key insights into how humanity is perturbing the climate system. The course is based on ¿The Warming Papers,¿ edited by David Archer and Raymond Pierrehumbert. Participants take turns presenting and leading a discussion of the papers and of Archer and Pierrehumbert¿s commentary.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Sheshadri, A. (PI)

ESS 204: Effective Scientific Presentation and Public Speaking (GEOLSCI 306, GEOPHYS 205)

The ability to present your work in a compelling, concise, and engaging manner will enhance your professional career. This course breaks down presentations into their key elements: the opening, body of the talk, closing, slide and poster graphics, Q&A, pacing, pauses, and voice modulation. The class is a series of several minute log stand-and-deliver exercises in which you get immediate class feedback and then re-do it on the fly. In addition, each participant will use their upcoming conference talk or poster (e.g., AGU, SEG), or upcoming job talk or funding pitch, as a final project. In addition to the class sessions, I will spend 60-90 min with each student individually. Everyone will come away a more skilled and confident speaker than they were before. Instructor: Ross S. Stein (Temblor.net, Emeritus USGS). The course syllabus can be found at http://temblor.net/team/ross-stein/
Terms: Aut | Units: 2 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Stein, R. (PI)

ESS 206: World Food Economy (EARTHSYS 106, EARTHSYS 206, ECON 106, ECON 206, ESS 106)

The economics of food production, consumption, and trade. The micro- and macro- determinants of food supply and demand, including the interrelationship among food, income, population, and public-sector decision making. Emphasis on the role of agriculture in poverty alleviation, economic development, and environmental outcomes. Grades based on mid-term exam and group modeling project and presentation. Enrollment is by application only and will be capped at 25, with priority given to upper level undergraduates in Economics and Earth Systems and graduate students (graduate students enroll in 206).
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Naylor, R. (PI)

ESS 208: Topics in Geobiology (GEOLSCI 208)

Reading course addressing current topics in geobiology. Topics will vary from year to year, but will generally cover areas of current debate in the primary literature, such as the origin of life, the origin and consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis, environmental controls on and consequences of metabolic innovations in microbes, the early evolution of animals and plants, and the causes and consequences of major extinction events. Participants will be expected to read and present on current papers in the primary literature.
Terms: Win | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Welander, P. (PI)

ESS 209: Biological and Social Networks (ESS 109)

This course introduces the analysis of social and biological networks with a focus on field data collected by interdisciplinary environmental and health scientists. Beginning from the premise that structure emerges from relationships between individual entities, we will concentrate in particular on the measurement of relationships, emphasizing especially practical methodology for mixed-method fieldwork suitable for interdisciplinary biosocial sciences (e.g., earth system science, epidemiology, demography, anthropology, conservation science). Topics include: social relationships in humans and other animals, ecological networks (e.g., trophic and mutualistic interactions), epidemiological networks, research design for collecting relational data, naturalistic observation, ethnographic network methods, sampling, data quality, missing data, graphs and graph theory, structural measures (e.g., density, centrality and centralization, clustering and community detection, embeddedness), network evolution, network diffusion, emergence, egocentric networks, multi-mode/multi-layer networks, inference for sampled networks. All computation and visualization will be done in R so some familiarity is assumed.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Jones, J. (PI)

ESS 210: Techniques in Environmental Microbiology

Fundamentals and application of laboratory techniques to study the diversity and activity of microorganisms in environmental samples, including soil, sediment, and water. Emphasis is on culture-independent approaches, including epifluorescence microscopy, extraction and analysis of major biomolecules (DNA, RNA, protein, lipids), stable isotope probing, and metabolic rate measurements. Format will include lectures, laboratory exercises, and discussions. Students will learn how to collect, analyze, and understand common and cutting-edge datasets in environmental microbiology. Permission from instructor is required to enroll as C/NC or for 3 units.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dekas, A. (PI)

ESS 212: Measurements in Earth Systems (EARTHSYS 124)

A classroom, laboratory, and field class designed to provide students familiarity with techniques and instrumentation used to track biological, chemical, and physical processes operating in earth systems, encompassing upland, aquatic, estuarine, and marine environments. Topics include gas and water flux measurement, nutrient and isotopic analysis, soil and water chemistry determination. Students will develop and test hypotheses, provide scientific evidence and analysis, culminating in a final presentation.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Casciotti, K. (PI)

ESS 213: Global Change and Emerging Infectious Disease (EARTHSYS 114, EARTHSYS 214, HUMBIO 114)

The changing epidemiological environment. How human-induced environmental changes, such as global warming, deforestation and land-use conversion, urbanization, international commerce, and human migration, are altering the ecology of infectious disease transmission, and promoting their re-emergence as a global public health threat. Case studies of malaria, cholera, hantavirus, plague, and HIV.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 218X: Shaping the Future of the Bay Area (CEE 118X, CEE 218X, ESS 118X, GEOLSCI 118X, GEOLSCI 218X, GEOPHYS 118X, GEOPHYS 218X, POLISCI 224X, PUBLPOL 118X)

The complex urban problems affecting quality of life in the Bay Area, from housing affordability and transportation congestion to economic vitality and social justice, are already perceived by many to be intractable, and will likely be exacerbated by climate change and other emerging environmental and technological forces. Changing urban systems to improve the equity, resilience and sustainability of communities will require new collaborative methods of assessment, goal setting, and problem solving across governments, markets, and communities. It will also require academic institutions to develop new models of co-production of knowledge across research, education, and practice. This XYZ course series is designed to immerse students in co-production for social change. The course sequence covers scientific research and ethical reasoning, skillsets in data-driven and qualitative analysis, and practical experience working with local partners on urban challenges that can empower students to drive responsible systems change in their future careers. The Autumn (X) course is specifically focused on concepts and skills, and completion is a prerequisite for participation in the Winter (Y) and/or Spring (Z) practicum quarters, which engage teams in real-world projects with Bay Area local governments or community groups. X is composed of four modules: (A) participation in two weekly classes which prominently feature experts in research and practice related to urban systems; (B) reading and writing assignments designed to deepen thinking on class topics; (C) fundamental data analysis skills, particularly focused on Excel and ArcGIS, taught in lab sessions through basic exercises; (D) advanced data analysis skills, particularly focused on geocomputation in R, taught through longer and more intensive assignments. X can be taken for 3 units (ABC), 4 units (ACD), or 5 units (ABCD). Open to undergraduate and graduate students in any major. For more information, visit http://bay.stanford.edu.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 218Y: Shaping the Future of the Bay Area (CEE 118Y, CEE 218Y, ESS 118Y, GEOPHYS 118Y, GEOPHYS 218Y)

Students are placed in small interdisciplinary teams (engineers and non-engineers, undergraduate and graduate level) to work on complex design, engineering, and policy problems presented by external partners in a real urban setting. Multiple projects are offered and may span both Winter and Spring quarters; students are welcome to participate in one or both quarters. Students are expected to interact professionally with government and community stakeholders, conduct independent team work outside of class sessions, and submit deliverables over a series of milestones. Prerequisite: the Autumn (X) skills course or approval of instructors. For information about the projects and application process, visit http://bay.stanford.edu.
Terms: Win | Units: 1-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 220: Physical Hydrogeology (CEE 260A)

(Formerly GES 230.) Theory of underground water occurrence and flow, analysis of field data and aquifer tests, geologic groundwater environments, solution of field problems, and groundwater modeling. Introduction to groundwater contaminant transport and unsaturated flow. Lab. Prerequisite: elementary calculus.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 221: Contaminant Hydrogeology and Reactive Transport (CEE 260C)

Decades of industrial activity have released vast quantities of contaminants to groundwater, threatening water resources, ecosystems and human health. What processes control the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface? What remediation strategies are effective and what are the tradeoffs among them? How are these processes represented in models used for regulatory and decision-making purposes? This course will address these and related issues by focusing on the conceptual and quantitative treatment of advective-dispersive transport with reacting solutes, including modern methods of contaminant transport simulation. Some Matlab programming / program modification required. Prerequisite: Physical Hydrogeology ESS 220 / CEE 260A (Gorelick) or equivalent and college-level course work in chemistry.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 223: Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions (EARTHSYS 123A, EARTHSYS 223, ESS 123)

How do ecosystems respond to climate, and how do ecosystems influence climate? Covers the role of the terrestrial land surface in earth's climate system, including among others photosynthesis, transpiration, greenhouse gasses, radiation, and atmospheric water vapor. For each of these topics, attention is paid to both the underlying processes and how they can be mathematically represented in earth system models. Instruments and techniques used to measure these processes are also discussed, and, where appropriate, demonstrated.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 224: Remote Sensing of Hydrology (CEE 260D)

This class discusses the methods available for remote sensing of the components of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle and how to use them. Topics include the hydrologic cycle, relevant sensor types and the electromagnetic spectrum, active/passive microwave remote sensing (snow, soil moisture, canopy water content, rainfall), thermal sensing of evapotranspiration, gravity and hyperspectral methods, as well as an introduction to data assimilation and calibration/validation approaches for hydrologic variables. Pre-requisite: programming experience.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Konings, A. (PI)

ESS 227: Decision Science for Environmental Threats (EARTHSYS 227)

Decision science is the study of how people make decisions. It aims to describe these processes in ways that will help people make better or more well-informed decisions. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws upon psychology, economics, political science, and management, among other disciplines. It is being used in a number of domain areas and for a variety of applications, including managing freshwater resources, designing decision support tools to aid in coastal adaptation to sea-level rise, and creating `nudges¿ to enhance energy efficiency behaviors. This course covers behavioral theories of probabilistic inference, intuitive prediction, preference, and decision making. Topics include heuristics and biases, risk perceptions and attitudes, strategies for combining different sources of information and dealing with conflicting objectives, and the roles of group and emotional processes in decision making. This course will introduce students to foundational theories of decision science, and will involve applying these theories to understand decisions about environmental threats.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 239: Data science for geoscience (EARTHSYS 140, EARTHSYS 240, ENERGY 240, GEOLSCI 140, GEOLSCI 240)

Overview of some of the most important data science methods (statistics, machine learning & computer vision) relevant for geological sciences, as well as other fields in the Earth Sciences. Areas covered are: extreme value statistics for predicting rare events; compositional data analysis for geochemistry; multivariate analysis for designing data & computer experiments; probabilistic aggregation of evidence for spatial mapping; functional data analysis for multivariate environmental datasets, spatial regression and modeling spatial uncertainty with covariate information (geostatistics). Identification & learning of geo-objects with computer vision. Focus on practicality rather than theory. Matlab exercises on realistic data problems.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Caers, J. (PI)

ESS 241: Remote Sensing of the Oceans (EARTHSYS 141, EARTHSYS 241, ESS 141, GEOPHYS 141)

How to observe and interpret physical and biological changes in the oceans using satellite technologies. Topics: principles of satellite remote sensing, classes of satellite remote sensors, converting radiometric data into biological and physical quantities, sensor calibration and validation, interpreting large-scale oceanographic features.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

ESS 243: Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, EARTHSYS 143, ESS 143)

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Welander, P. (PI)

ESS 246A: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: The Atmospheric Circulation (CEE 161I, CEE 261I, EARTHSYS 146A)

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the atmospheric circulation. Topics include the global energy balance, the greenhouse effect, the vertical and meridional structure of the atmosphere, dry and moist convection, the equations of motion for the atmosphere and ocean, including the effects of rotation, and the poleward transport of heat by the large-scale atmospheric circulation and storm systems. Prerequisites: MATH 51 or CME100 and PHYSICS 41.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 246B: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: the Ocean Circulation (CEE 162I, CEE 262I, EARTHSYS 146B)

Introduction to the physics governing the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and their control on climate with emphasis on the large-scale ocean circulation. This course will give an overview of the structure and dynamics of the major ocean current systems that contribute to the meridional overturning circulation, the transport of heat, salt, and biogeochemical tracers, and the regulation of climate. Topics include the tropical ocean circulation, the wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents, the thermohaline circulation, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, water mass formation, atmosphere-ocean coupling, and climate variability. Prerequisites: MATH 51 or CME100; and PHYSICS 41; and a course that introduces the equations of fluid motion (e.g. ESS 246A, ESS 148, or CEE 101B).
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 251: Biological Oceanography (EARTHSYS 151, EARTHSYS 251, ESS 151)

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (ESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and ESS 8 or equivalent.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

ESS 252: Marine Chemistry (EARTHSYS 152, EARTHSYS 252, ESS 152)

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (ESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Casciotti, K. (PI)

ESS 255: Microbial Physiology (BIO 180, EARTHSYS 255, GEOLSCI 233A)

Introduction to the physiology of microbes including cellular structure, transcription and translation, growth and metabolism, mechanisms for stress resistance and the formation of microbial communities. These topics will be covered in relation to the evolution of early life on Earth, ancient ecosystems, and the interpretation of the rock record. Recommended: introductory biology and chemistry.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 256: Soil and Water Chemistry (EARTHSYS 256)

(Graduate students register for 256.) Practical and quantitative treatment of soil processes affecting chemical reactivity, transformation, retention, and bioavailability. Principles of primary areas of soil chemistry: inorganic and organic soil components, complex equilibria in soil solutions, and adsorption phenomena at the solid-water interface. Processes and remediation of acid, saline, and wetland soils. Recommended: soil science and introductory chemistry and microbiology.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Fendorf, S. (PI)

ESS 259: Environmental Microbial Genomics

The application of molecular and environmental genomic approaches to the study of biogeochemically-important microorganisms in the environment without the need for cultivation. Emphasis is on genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from natural microbial assemblages. Topics include microbial energy generation and nutrient cycling, genome structure, gene function, physiology, phylogenetic and functional diversity, evolution, and population dynamics of uncultured communities.
Terms: Win | Units: 1-3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Francis, C. (PI)

ESS 262: Remote Sensing of Land (EARTHSYS 142, EARTHSYS 242, ESS 162)

The use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover, with emphasis on terrestrial changes. Topics include pre-processing data, biophysical properties of vegetation observable by satellite, accuracy assessment of maps derived from remote sensing, and methodologies to detect changes such as urbanization, deforestation, vegetation health, and wildfires.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lyons, E. (PI)

ESS 265: Advanced Geographic Information Systems (ESS 165)

Building on the Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems course, this class delves deeper into geospatial analysis and mapping techniques. The class is heavily project-based and students are encouraged to bring their own research questions. Topics include topographic analysis, interpolation, spatial statistics, network analysis, and scripting using Python and Acrpy. All students are required to attend a weekly lab. ESS 164 or equivalent is a prerequisite.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Lyons, E. (PI)

ESS 268: Empirical Methods in Sustainable Development (INTLPOL 272)

The determinants of human well-being over the short and long-run, including the role of environmental factors in shaping development outcomes. A focus on the empirical literature across both social and natural sciences, with discussion and assignments emphasizing empirical analysis of environment-development linkages, application of methods in causal inference, and data visualization.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Burke, M. (PI)

ESS 270: Analyzing land use in a globalized world (ESS 170)

This course examines the dynamics of land use in relation to globalization. The objective is to understand how the expansion of global trade, and public and private regulations affect land use changes. The course will enable students to better understand how to effectively influence land use change, from different vantage points (government, NGO, corporate actor¿). The main emphasis is on tropical regions. Lectures introduce theories, practical cases, and evaluation tools to better understand contemporary land use dynamics.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Lambin, E. (PI)

ESS 275: Nitrogen in the Marine Environment

The goal of this seminar course is to explore current topics in marine nitrogen cycle. We will explore a variety of processes, including primary production, nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonia oxidation, and their controls. We will use the book Nitrogen in the Marine Environment and supplement with student-led discussions of recent literature. A variety of biomes, spatial and temporal scales, and methodologies for investigation will be discussed.
Terms: Win | Units: 1-2 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Casciotti, K. (PI)

ESS 280: Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture (EARTHSYS 180)

Field-based training in ecologically sound agricultural practices at the Stanford Community Farm. Weekly lessons, field work, and group projects. Field trips to educational farms in the area. Topics include: soils, composting, irrigation techniques, IPM, basic plant anatomy and physiology, weeds, greenhouse management, and marketing. Application required. Deadline: September 10 for Autumn and March 10 for Spring. nnApplication: https://stanforduniversity.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3l0kOiLP8DhwS1f
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 3-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 292: Directed Individual Study in Earth System Science

Under supervision of an Earth System Science faculty member on a subject of mutual interest.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 1-10 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 301: Topics in Earth System Science

Current topics, issues, and research related to interactions that link the oceans, atmosphere, land surfaces and freshwater systems. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

ESS 305: Climate Change: An Earth Systems Perspective

This is an introductory graduate-level course that is intended to provide an overview of leading-edge research topics in the area of climate change. Lectures introduce the physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and human dimensions of climate change, with emphasis on understanding climate change from an Earth System perspective (e.g., nonlinearities, feedbacks, thresholds, tipping points, resilience, vulnerability, risk). The emphasis is on providing an initial introduction to the process by which researchers pose questions and analyze and interpret results.
Terms: Aut | Units: 2 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

ESS 306: From Freshwater to Oceans to Land Systems: An Earth System Perspective to Global Challenges

Within this class we will have cover Earth System processes ranging from nutrient cycles to ocean circulation. We will also address global environmental challenges of the twenty-first century that include maintaining freshwater resources, land degradation, health of our oceans, and the balance between food production and environmental degradation. Weekly readings and problem sets on specific topics will be followed by presentations of Earth System Science faculty and an in-depth class discussion. ESS first year students have priority enrollment.
Terms: Win | Units: 2 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lambin, E. (PI)

ESS 307: Research Proposal Development and Delivery (GEOLSCI 307)

In this class students will learn how to write rigorous, high yield, multidisciplinary proposals targeting major funding agencies. The skills gained in this class are essential to any professional career, particularly in research science. Students will write a National Science Foundation style proposal involving testable hypotheses, pilot data or calculations, and broader impact. Restricted to ESS and GS first-year graduate students.
Terms: Spr | Units: 2 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Chamberlain, P. (PI)

ESS 322B: Seminar in Hydrology

Current topics. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gorelick, S. (PI)

ESS 348: Dynamics of the Atmosphere

Overview of large-scale atmospheric dynamics. Topics include the circulation of a zonally symmetric atmosphere, internal gravity waves, Rossby waves, the instability of zonal flows, and the role of eddies in the general circulation. Class participation in terms of summarizing papers and making presentations will be required.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Sheshadri, A. (PI)

ESS 360: Social Structure and Social Networks

In this course, we will explore social network analysis, a set of methods and theories used in the analysis of social structure. The fundamental conceit underlying social network analysis is that social structure emerges from relationships between individuals. We will therefore concentrate in particular on the measurement of relationships, emphasizing especially practical methodology for anthropological fieldwork. This is a somewhat unusual course because of its focus on social network research coming out of anthropological and ethological traditions. While most current practitioners of social network analysis are (probably) sociologists, many of both the methodological antecedents and theoretical justifications for the field can be found in these two traditions. A major goal of this course is to understand how the methods and perspectives of social network analysis can be usefully incorporated into contemporary approaches to ethnography and other anthropological modes of investigation. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Jones, J. (PI)

ESS 363F: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (CEE 363F)

The fundamental dynamics of rotating stratified fluids. Topics include inertia-gravity waves, geostrophic and cyclogeostrophic balance, vorticity and potential vorticity dynamics, quasi-geostrophic motions, planetary and topographic Rossby waves, inertial, symmetric, barotropic, and baroclinic instability, Ekman layers, and the frictional spin-down of geostrophic flows. Prerequisites: CEE 262A or a graduate class in fluid mechanics. Recommended math background: vector calculus, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Thomas, L. (PI)

ESS 401: Curricular Practical Training

CPT course required for international students completing degree. Prerequisite: Earth System Science Ph.D. candidate.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr, Sum | Units: 1-3 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Rajaratnam, B. (PI)
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