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EARTHSYS 90: Introduction to Geochemistry (GS 90)

The chemistry of the solid earth and its atmosphere and oceans, emphasizing the processes that control the distribution of the elements in the earth over geological time and at present, and on the conceptual and analytical tools needed to explore these questions. The basics of geochemical thermodynamics and isotope geochemistry. The formation of the elements, crust, atmosphere and oceans, global geochemical cycles, and the interaction of geochemistry, biological evolution, and climate. Recommended: introductory chemistry.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: Stebbins, J. (PI)

EARTHSYS 101: Energy and the Environment (ENERGY 101)

Energy use in modern society and the consequences of current and future energy use patterns. Case studies illustrate resource estimation, engineering analysis of energy systems, and options for managing carbon emissions. Focus is on energy definitions, use patterns, resource estimation, pollution. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 102: Fundamentals of Renewable Power (ENERGY 102)

Do you want a much better understanding of renewable power technologies? Did you know that wind and solar are the fastest growing forms of electricity generation? Are you interested in hearing about the most recent, and future, designs for green power? Do you want to understand what limits power extraction from renewable resources and how current designs could be improved? This course dives deep into these and related issues for wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, tidal and wave power technologies. We welcome all student, from non-majors to MBAs and grad students. If you are potentially interested in an energy or environmental related major, this course is particularly useful. Recommended: Math 21 or 42.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 104: The Water Course (GEOPHYS 70)

The Central Valley of California provides a third of the produce grown in the U.S., but has a desert climate, thus raising concerns about both food and water security. The pathway that water takes rainfall to the irrigation of fields (the water course) determines the quantity and quality of the available water. Working with various data sources (remote sensing, gauges, wells) allows us to model the water budget in the valley and explore the way in which recent droughts and increasing demand are impacting freshwater supplies.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 110: Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics (GEOPHYS 110)

Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics. Topics drawn from broad themes in: whole Earth geodynamics, geohazards, natural resources, and enviroment. In each case the focus is on how the interpretation of a variety of geophysical measurements (e.g., gravity, seismology, heat flow, electromagnetics, and remote sensing) can be used to provide fundamental insight into the behavior of the Earth. Prerequisite: CME 100 or MA TH 51, or co-registration in either.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 111: Biology and Global Change (BIO 117, ESS 111)

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: Arrigo, K. (PI)

EARTHSYS 113: Earthquakes and Volcanoes (GEOPHYS 90)

Is the "Big One" overdue in California? What kind of damage would that cause? What can we do to reduce the impact of such hazards in urban environments? Does "fracking" cause earthquakes and are we at risk? Is the United States vulnerable to a giant tsunami? The geologic record contains evidence of volcanic super eruptions throughout Earth's history. What causes these gigantic explosive eruptions, and can they be predicted in the future? This course will address these and related issues. For non-majors and potential Earth scientists. No prerequisites. More information at: https://stanford.box.com/s/zr8ar28efmuo5wtlj6gj2jbxle76r4lu
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: Beroza, G. (PI)

EARTHSYS 117: Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands (EARTH 117, ESS 117)

Progression from volcanic processes through rock weathering and soil-ecosystem development to landscape evolution. The course starts with an investigation of volcanic processes, including the volcano structure, origin of magmas, physical-chemical factors of eruptions. Factors controlling rock weathering and soil development, including depth and nutrient levels impacting plant ecosystems, are explored next. Geomorphic processes of landscape evolution including erosion rates, tectonic/volcanic activity, and hillslope stability conclude the course. Methods for monitoring and predicting eruptions, defining spatial changes in landform, landform stability, soil production rates, and measuring biogeochemical processes are covered throughout the course. This course is restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

EARTHSYS 122: Evolution of Marine Ecosystems (BIO 119, GS 123, GS 223B)

Life originally evolved in the ocean. When, why, and how did the major transitions occur in the history of marine life? What triggered the rapid evolution and diversification of animals in the Cambrian, after more than 3.5 billion years of Earth's history? What caused Earth's major mass extinction events? How do ancient extinction events compare to current threats to marine ecosystems? How has the evolution of primary producers impacted animals, and how has animal evolution impacted primary producers? In this course, we will review the latest evidence regarding these major questions in the history of marine ecosystems. We will develop familiarity with the most common groups of marine animal fossils. We will also conduct original analyses of paleontological data, developing skills both in the framing and testing of scientific hypotheses and in data analysis and presentation.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 143: Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, ESS 143, ESS 243)

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: Welander, P. (PI)
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