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PHIL 1: Introduction to Philosophy

Is there one truth or many? Does science tell us everything there is to know? Can our minds be purely physical? Do we have free will? Is faith rational? Should we always be rational? What is the meaning of life? Are there moral truths? What are truth, reality, rationality, and knowledge? How can such questions be answered? Intensive introduction to theories and techniques in philosophy from various contemporary traditions. Students must enroll in lecture AND and one of the discussion sections listed.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 11N: Skepticism

Preference to freshmen. Historical and contemporary philosophical perspectives on the limits of human knowledge of a mind-independent world and causal laws of nature. The nature and possibility of a priori knowledge. Skepticism regarding religious beliefs..
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; De Pierris, G. (PI)

PHIL 22P: Love, friendship, and social construction

Grad-led tutorial. This course will explore the social dimensions of loving relationships, such as those between romantic partners, siblings, or close friends. In particular, we will explore the idea that such relationships are in important ways the product of one's social situation: that the nature, norms, and standards of friendship, for example, are not just determined by particular friends in particular friendships, but by their broader community. This investigation will broach topics in the philosophy of emotions, metaphysics, ethics, and action theory.
Terms: Win | Units: 2 | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Parmer, W. (PI)

PHIL 60: Introduction to Philosophy of Science (HPS 60)

This course introduces students to tools for the philosophical analysis of science. We will cover issues in observation, experiment, and reasoning, questions about the aims of science, scientific change, and the relations between science and values.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 76: Introduction to Global Justice (ETHICSOC 136R, INTNLREL 136R, POLISCI 136R, POLISCI 336)

This course provides an overview of core ethical problems in international politics, with special emphasis on the question of what demands justice imposes on institutions and agents acting in a global context. The course is divided into three sections. The first investigates the content of global justice, and comprises of readings from contemporary political theorists and philosophers who write within the liberal contractualist, utilitarian, cosmopolitan, and nationalist traditions. The second part of the course looks at the obligations which global justice generates in relation to a series of real-world issues of international concern: global poverty, human rights, natural resources, climate change, migration, and the well-being of women.. The final section of the course asks whether a democratic international order is necessary for global justice to be realized.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, GER:EC-EthicReas, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 90Z: Punishment, Responsibility, and Incarceration

This course provides an introduction to some of the topics of contemporary analytic philosophy including free-will, moral responsibility, and moral luck through the lens of the US criminal justice system. The course is divided into roughly three sections. In the first, we examine the intersection between action and justice: in particular, the ascription of mens rea (i.e., guilty mind) to individuals accused/convicted of crimes and how these ascriptions are justified. In the second, we explore the topics of free-will and responsibility, topics which are central to many rationales undergirding criminal punishment both in theoretical literature as well as within society more broadly. Finally, in the third section, we will look at various philosophical justifications of punishment and how these relate to legislative policies within the criminal justice system.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Simon, A. (PI)

PHIL 107B: Plato's Later Metaphysics and Epistemology (PHIL 207B)

A close reading of Plato's Theatetus and Parmenides, his two mature dialogues on the topics of knowledge and reality. We will consider various definitions of knowledge, metaphysical problems about the objects of knowledge, and a proposed method for examining and resolving such problems. Some background in ancient Greek philosophy and/or contemporary metaphysics and epistemology is preferred, but not required. Prerequisite: Phil 80.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 118P: Early Modern Ethics

The early modern period in philosophy saw the introduction and development of many of the most powerful and lasting ideas in the history of ethical thought. This course provides an introduction to some of these ideas. Figures to be discussed will likely include Locke, Hume, Hutcheson, Montaigne, Mandeville, Hobbes, Leibniz, and Kant.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Tulipana, P. (PI)

PHIL 120: Leibniz (PHIL 220)

A polymath, Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton and made major contributions to virtually every science, including logic and computer science. In this course, we investigate Leibniz's philosophical system and its metaphysics: that God created the best of all possible worlds; that humans freely choose actions that are nevertheless pre-established; that space and time are idealizations and `imaginary'; and that true, fundamental reality consists of minds.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Parker, A. (PI)

PHIL 133S: Heidegger and Mysticism (RELIGST 181)

The new paradigm for understanding Heidegger makes possible a fresh look at his long-standing interest in western mysticism as well as in Daoism. Part One: a radical recasting of Heidegger's thought, including his readings of the Presocratics (6th century BCE). In light of that, Part Two: a reading of selected texts of western mystics as well as Laozi's Dao De Jing / Tao Te Ching (6th century BCE).
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sheehan, T. (PI)

PHIL 142: Race, Justice, and Integration (AFRICAAM 241, EDUC 241, PHIL 242)

Recent philosophical research on injustice, race, and the ideal of racial integration.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Callan, E. (PI)

PHIL 151: Metalogic (PHIL 251)

(Formerly 160A.) The syntax and semantics of sentential and first-order logic. Concepts of model theory. Gödel's completeness theorem and its consequences: the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and the compactness theorem. Prerequisite: 150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math, WAY-FR | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 162: Philosophy of Mathematics (MATH 162)

Mathematics is a very peculiar human activity. It delivers a type of knowledge that is particularly stable, often conceived as a priori and necessary. Moreover, this knowledge is about abstract entities, which seem to have no connection to us, spatio-temporal creatures, and yet it plays a crucial role in our scientific endeavors. Many philosophical questions emerge naturally: What is the nature of mathematical objects? How can we learn anything about them? Where does the stability of mathematics comes from? What is the significance of results showing the limits of such knowledge, such as Gödel's incompleteness theorem? The first part of the course will survey traditional approaches to philosophy of mathematics ("the big Isms") and consider the viability of their answers to some of the previous questions: logicism, intuitionism, Hilbert's program, empiricism, fictionalism, and structuralism. The second part will focus on philosophical issues emerging from the actual practice of mathematics. We will tackle questions such as: Why do mathematicians re-prove the same theorems? What is the role of visualization in mathematics? How can mathematical knowledge be effective in natural science? To conclude, we will explore the aesthetic dimension of mathematics, focusing on mathematical beauty. Prerequisite: PHIL150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Math | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 165: Philosophy of Physics: Philosophical Issues in Quantum Mechanics (PHIL 265)

Graduate students register for 265. NOTE: Phil 165/265 alternates topics yearly between "Philosophical Issues in Quantum Mechanics" and "Philosophical Problems of Space, Time and Motion". The course may be repeated with a different subject matter. nnIn Winter 2017-18, the subject is ""Philosophical Issues in QM"nnI. TOPICS: After introducing a simplified version of Dirac's 'bra-ket' vector space formalism for the quantum state (a.k.a. function), the first third of the term is a historical overview of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, wave-particle duality, the problem of quantum measurement, and the non-classical nature of spin. We survey the treatment of these issues within Bohr's doctrine of complementarity and the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of QM. We review Einstein's several arguments for the incompleteness of QM, leading up to the famous EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paper of 1935, the resulting issue of quantum entanglement as discussed by Einstein and Schrödinger, and the complexities of Bohr's response to EPR. In the second third of the term, we examine a well-known 'no go' theorem on EPR-type experimental set-ups stemming from Bell in the 1960s, according to which no hidden variables theory satisfying a certain locality condition (apparently assumed by EPR) can reproduce all the predictions of QM. In the last third, we survey current variations of, or interpretive options for, standard QM: Bohmian mechanics (a.k.a. pilot wave theory), spontaneous collapse theories, and Everett's relative-state interpretation with its many worlds/ many minds variants. We end by scrutinizing the recent decoherence program (a.k.a.localization induced by the scattering of environmental particles) that purports to explain the quantum-to-classical transition, i.e., the emergence of the world of classical physics and macroscopic objects and properties from quantum physics. We consider whether decoherence is justifiably viewed as solving the quantum measurement problem. nnII. PREREQUISITES: No detailed knowledge of quantum physics or advanced mathematics is presumed. Some background in philosophy, natural science or mathematics will be helpful. Students will benefit from possession of a modicum of mathematical maturity (roughly equivalent to a familiarity with elementary single-variable calculus or the metatheory of first-order logic).
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-SMA | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 167D: Philosophy of Neuroscience (PHIL 267D, SYMSYS 206A)

How can we explain the mind? With approaches ranging from computational models to cellular-level characterizations of neural responses to the characterization of behavior, neuroscience aims to explain how we see, think, decide, and even feel. While these approaches have been highly successful in answering some kinds of questions, they have resulted in surprisingly little progress in others. We'll look at the relationships between the neuroscientific enterprise, philosophical investigations of the nature of the mind, and our everyday experiences as creatures with minds. Prerequisite: PHIL 80.n(Not open to freshmen.)
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI)

PHIL 174B: Universal Basic Income: the philosophy behind the proposal (ETHICSOC 174X, ETHICSOC 274X, PHIL 274B, POLISCI 338)

The past three decades have seen the elaboration of a vast body of literature on unconditional basic income a radical policy proposal Philippe Van Parijs referred to as a disarmingly simple idea. It consists of a monthly cash allowance given to all citizens, regardless of personal desert and without means test to provide them with a standard of living above the poverty line. The seminar will seek to engage students in normative debates in political theory (feminism, liberalism, republicanism, communism, libertarianism, etc.) by appealing to the concrete example of basic income. It will allow students to learn a great deal about a policy that is gaining tremendous currency in academic and public debates, while discussing and learning about prominent political theorists - many of whom have written against or for basic income at one point in their career.nnThe seminar is open to undergraduate and graduate students in all departments. There are no pre-requisites. We will ask questions such as: is giving people cash no strings attached desirable and just? Would basic income promote a more gender equal society through the remuneration of care-work, or would it risks further entrenching the position of women as care-givers? Would alternative policies be more successful (such as the job guarantees, stakeholder grants or a negative income tax)? How can we test out basic income? What makes for a reliable and ethical basic income pilot? Students in Politics, Philosophy, Public Policy, Social Work, and Sociology should find most of those questions relevant to their interests. Some discussions on how to fund basic income, on the macro-economic implications of basic income and on the existing pilots projects (in Finland, Namibia, India, Canada and the US) may be of interest to Economists; while our readings on the impact of new technologies and artificial intelligence on the future of work and whether a basic income could be a solution, are likely to be on interest to computer scientists and engineers. By the end of the class, students will have an in depth knowledge of the policy and will have developed skills in the normative analysis of public policy. They will be able to deploy those critical and analytical skills to assess a broad range of other policies.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 175B: Philosophy of Public Policy (ETHICSOC 75X, PHIL 275B)

From healthcare to parliamentary reforms to educational policies, social and public policies are underpinned by normative justifications - that is by different conceptions of what is right, wrong or required by justice. By analyzing these assumptions and justifications, we can in turn challenge the policies in question - asking: Is workfare ever justified? What is wrong with racial profiling? When (if ever) is compulsory voting justified? Should children have the right to vote? Does affirmative action promote equality? Should freedom of expression ever be restricted? What are the duties of citizens of affluent countries toward asylum seekers and economic migrants? Do we have a right to privacy?nnThe course aims to train students in the normative analysis of public policies. At the end of this class, students should be able to critically examine diverse policy proposals from the perspective of ethics, moral and political philosophy. Students will be introduced to a broad range of normative approaches to politics, and the seminars will be organized around debates and small-group exercises to train students in the concrete ways in which one argues normatively. Through concrete and important policy examples each week, students will be introduced to the main debates in moral and political theory.nnThere are no prerequisites. Undergraduates and graduates from all departments are welcome to attend. After taking this class, students will be prepared to take more advanced classes in ethics, political theory, as well as moral and political philosophy. They will have developed competences in the normative analysis of public policy and they will be able to deploy those competences in other ethics classes.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 176A: Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought (CLASSICS 181, CLASSICS 381, PHIL 276A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A)

(Formerly CLASSHIS 133/333.) Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ober, J. (PI); Shi, P. (GP)

PHIL 176P: Democratic Theory (POLISCI 234)

Most people agree that democracy is a good thing, but do we agree on what democracy is? This course will examine the concept of democracy in political philosophy. We will address the following questions: What reason(s), if any, do we have for valuing democracy? What does it mean to treat people as political equals? When does a group of individuals constitute "a people," and how can a people make genuinely collective decisions? Can democracy really be compatible with social inequality? With an entrenched constitution? With representation?
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Coyne, B. (PI)

PHIL 178: Ethics in Society Honors Seminar (ETHICSOC 190)

For students planning honors in Ethics in Society. Methods of research. Students present issues of public and personal morality; topics chosen with advice of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Sockness, B. (PI)

PHIL 179A: Feminist and Queer Theories and Methods Across the Disciplines (FEMGEN 103, FEMGEN 203, PHIL 279A)

(Graduate Students register for PHIL 279A or FEMGEN 203) This course is an opportunity to explore the difference feminist and queer perspectives make in creative arts, humanities, and social science research.nPrerequisites: Feminist Studies 101 or equivalent with consent of instructor.nNOTE: This course must be taken for a letter grade and a minimum of 3 units to be eligible for WAYS credit. The 2 unit option is for graduate students only.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-5 | UG Reqs: GER:EC-Gender, WAY-A-II, WAY-ED | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Longino, H. (PI); Kim, H. (TA)

PHIL 181: Philosophy of Language (PHIL 281)

The study of conceptual questions about language as a focus of contemporary philosophy for its inherent interest and because philosophers see questions about language as behind perennial questions in other areas of philosophy including epistemology, philosophy of science, metaphysics, and ethics. Key concepts and debates about the notions of meaning, truth, reference, and language use, with relations to psycholinguistics and formal semantics. Readings from philosophers such as Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Grice, and Kripke. Prerequisites: 80 and background in logic.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 181C: Slurs and derogatory language (PHIL 281C)

Do slurring words differ in semantic character from their so-called neutral counterparts? If so how do we explain the difference in meaning between a slur and its neutral counterpart. Or is slurring better explained by appeal to the resources of pragmatics, speech act theory or sociolinguistics? What is the source of the offensiveness of a slur? How can mere words subordinate and marginalize? We attempt to answer these and other questions about slurs and derogatory language. nA previous course in either the philosophy of language or linguistic semantics or pragmatics is strongly recommended, though students without such background who are willing to do additional reading to fill in gaps in their knowledge are also welcome.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Taylor, K. (PI)

PHIL 187: Philosophy of Action (PHIL 287)

(Graduate students register for 287.) Contemporary research in the philosophy of action. Topics include: What is it to be an agent? Is there a philosophically defensible contrast between being an agent and being a locus of causal forces to which one is subject? What is it to act purposively? What is intention? What is the relation between intention and belief? What is it to act intentionally? What is it to act for a reason? What is the relation between explaining why someone acted by citing the reasons for which she acted and causal explanation of her action? What is the relation between theoretical and practical rationality? What is the nature of our knowledge of our own intentional activity? What is it to act autonomously? What is shared cooperative activity? Prerequisite: 80.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 194W: Capstone Seminar: Literature and the Moral Imagination

Literature is often hailed for its ability to expand our moral horizons and to make us better, more empathetic people. But is literature actually able to do these things? If it is, is it unique in its power to do so? How can reading a work of creative fiction improve us in real life? Can reading literature ever make us worse? This course is an investigation into these and related questions, which special attention given to the ways that literature can (and cannot) engage the moral imagination. Readings will alternate between contemporary philosophical articles on the relation between literature, ethics, and the moral imagination, and classic and contemporary works of literature that engage the moral imagination in different ways. Some background in aesthetics, ethics, and/or the philosophy of literature is preferred, but not required. (This is a capstone seminar for philosophy majors and students pursuing the Philosophy & Literature concentration. Other students are welcome to enroll, but preference will be given to students in these groups.)
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-A-II, WAY-ER | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Costello, W. (PI)

PHIL 198: The Dualist Undergraduate Journal

Weekly meeting of the editorial board of The Dualist, a national journal of undergraduate work in philosophy. Open to all undergraduates. May be repeated.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kim, H. (PI); Turman, J. (PI)

PHIL 207B: Plato's Later Metaphysics and Epistemology (PHIL 107B)

A close reading of Plato's Theatetus and Parmenides, his two mature dialogues on the topics of knowledge and reality. We will consider various definitions of knowledge, metaphysical problems about the objects of knowledge, and a proposed method for examining and resolving such problems. Some background in ancient Greek philosophy and/or contemporary metaphysics and epistemology is preferred, but not required. Prerequisite: Phil 80.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 220: Leibniz (PHIL 120)

A polymath, Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton and made major contributions to virtually every science, including logic and computer science. In this course, we investigate Leibniz's philosophical system and its metaphysics: that God created the best of all possible worlds; that humans freely choose actions that are nevertheless pre-established; that space and time are idealizations and `imaginary'; and that true, fundamental reality consists of minds.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Parker, A. (PI)

PHIL 242: Race, Justice, and Integration (AFRICAAM 241, EDUC 241, PHIL 142)

Recent philosophical research on injustice, race, and the ideal of racial integration.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Callan, E. (PI)

PHIL 251: Metalogic (PHIL 151)

(Formerly 160A.) The syntax and semantics of sentential and first-order logic. Concepts of model theory. Gödel's completeness theorem and its consequences: the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and the compactness theorem. Prerequisite: 150 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 265: Philosophy of Physics: Philosophical Issues in Quantum Mechanics (PHIL 165)

Graduate students register for 265. NOTE: Phil 165/265 alternates topics yearly between "Philosophical Issues in Quantum Mechanics" and "Philosophical Problems of Space, Time and Motion". The course may be repeated with a different subject matter. nnIn Winter 2017-18, the subject is ""Philosophical Issues in QM"nnI. TOPICS: After introducing a simplified version of Dirac's 'bra-ket' vector space formalism for the quantum state (a.k.a. function), the first third of the term is a historical overview of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, wave-particle duality, the problem of quantum measurement, and the non-classical nature of spin. We survey the treatment of these issues within Bohr's doctrine of complementarity and the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of QM. We review Einstein's several arguments for the incompleteness of QM, leading up to the famous EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paper of 1935, the resulting issue of quantum entanglement as discussed by Einstein and Schrödinger, and the complexities of Bohr's response to EPR. In the second third of the term, we examine a well-known 'no go' theorem on EPR-type experimental set-ups stemming from Bell in the 1960s, according to which no hidden variables theory satisfying a certain locality condition (apparently assumed by EPR) can reproduce all the predictions of QM. In the last third, we survey current variations of, or interpretive options for, standard QM: Bohmian mechanics (a.k.a. pilot wave theory), spontaneous collapse theories, and Everett's relative-state interpretation with its many worlds/ many minds variants. We end by scrutinizing the recent decoherence program (a.k.a.localization induced by the scattering of environmental particles) that purports to explain the quantum-to-classical transition, i.e., the emergence of the world of classical physics and macroscopic objects and properties from quantum physics. We consider whether decoherence is justifiably viewed as solving the quantum measurement problem. nnII. PREREQUISITES: No detailed knowledge of quantum physics or advanced mathematics is presumed. Some background in philosophy, natural science or mathematics will be helpful. Students will benefit from possession of a modicum of mathematical maturity (roughly equivalent to a familiarity with elementary single-variable calculus or the metatheory of first-order logic).
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 267D: Philosophy of Neuroscience (PHIL 167D, SYMSYS 206A)

How can we explain the mind? With approaches ranging from computational models to cellular-level characterizations of neural responses to the characterization of behavior, neuroscience aims to explain how we see, think, decide, and even feel. While these approaches have been highly successful in answering some kinds of questions, they have resulted in surprisingly little progress in others. We'll look at the relationships between the neuroscientific enterprise, philosophical investigations of the nature of the mind, and our everyday experiences as creatures with minds. Prerequisite: PHIL 80.n(Not open to freshmen.)
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cao, R. (PI)

PHIL 274B: Universal Basic Income: the philosophy behind the proposal (ETHICSOC 174X, ETHICSOC 274X, PHIL 174B, POLISCI 338)

The past three decades have seen the elaboration of a vast body of literature on unconditional basic income a radical policy proposal Philippe Van Parijs referred to as a disarmingly simple idea. It consists of a monthly cash allowance given to all citizens, regardless of personal desert and without means test to provide them with a standard of living above the poverty line. The seminar will seek to engage students in normative debates in political theory (feminism, liberalism, republicanism, communism, libertarianism, etc.) by appealing to the concrete example of basic income. It will allow students to learn a great deal about a policy that is gaining tremendous currency in academic and public debates, while discussing and learning about prominent political theorists - many of whom have written against or for basic income at one point in their career.nnThe seminar is open to undergraduate and graduate students in all departments. There are no pre-requisites. We will ask questions such as: is giving people cash no strings attached desirable and just? Would basic income promote a more gender equal society through the remuneration of care-work, or would it risks further entrenching the position of women as care-givers? Would alternative policies be more successful (such as the job guarantees, stakeholder grants or a negative income tax)? How can we test out basic income? What makes for a reliable and ethical basic income pilot? Students in Politics, Philosophy, Public Policy, Social Work, and Sociology should find most of those questions relevant to their interests. Some discussions on how to fund basic income, on the macro-economic implications of basic income and on the existing pilots projects (in Finland, Namibia, India, Canada and the US) may be of interest to Economists; while our readings on the impact of new technologies and artificial intelligence on the future of work and whether a basic income could be a solution, are likely to be on interest to computer scientists and engineers. By the end of the class, students will have an in depth knowledge of the policy and will have developed skills in the normative analysis of public policy. They will be able to deploy those critical and analytical skills to assess a broad range of other policies.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 275B: Philosophy of Public Policy (ETHICSOC 75X, PHIL 175B)

From healthcare to parliamentary reforms to educational policies, social and public policies are underpinned by normative justifications - that is by different conceptions of what is right, wrong or required by justice. By analyzing these assumptions and justifications, we can in turn challenge the policies in question - asking: Is workfare ever justified? What is wrong with racial profiling? When (if ever) is compulsory voting justified? Should children have the right to vote? Does affirmative action promote equality? Should freedom of expression ever be restricted? What are the duties of citizens of affluent countries toward asylum seekers and economic migrants? Do we have a right to privacy?nnThe course aims to train students in the normative analysis of public policies. At the end of this class, students should be able to critically examine diverse policy proposals from the perspective of ethics, moral and political philosophy. Students will be introduced to a broad range of normative approaches to politics, and the seminars will be organized around debates and small-group exercises to train students in the concrete ways in which one argues normatively. Through concrete and important policy examples each week, students will be introduced to the main debates in moral and political theory.nnThere are no prerequisites. Undergraduates and graduates from all departments are welcome to attend. After taking this class, students will be prepared to take more advanced classes in ethics, political theory, as well as moral and political philosophy. They will have developed competences in the normative analysis of public policy and they will be able to deploy those competences in other ethics classes.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 276A: Classical Seminar: Origins of Political Thought (CLASSICS 181, CLASSICS 381, PHIL 176A, POLISCI 230A, POLISCI 330A)

(Formerly CLASSHIS 133/333.) Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ober, J. (PI); Shi, P. (GP)

PHIL 276D: Origins of Political Thought (CLASSICS 390, POLISCI 430)

Political philosophy in classical antiquity, focusing on canonical works of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Historical background. Topics include: political obligation, citizenship, and leadership; origins and development of democracy; and law, civic strife, and constitutional change
Terms: Win | Units: 3-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ober, J. (PI)

PHIL 279A: Feminist and Queer Theories and Methods Across the Disciplines (FEMGEN 103, FEMGEN 203, PHIL 179A)

(Graduate Students register for PHIL 279A or FEMGEN 203) This course is an opportunity to explore the difference feminist and queer perspectives make in creative arts, humanities, and social science research.nPrerequisites: Feminist Studies 101 or equivalent with consent of instructor.nNOTE: This course must be taken for a letter grade and a minimum of 3 units to be eligible for WAYS credit. The 2 unit option is for graduate students only.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-5 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Longino, H. (PI); Kim, H. (TA)

PHIL 281: Philosophy of Language (PHIL 181)

The study of conceptual questions about language as a focus of contemporary philosophy for its inherent interest and because philosophers see questions about language as behind perennial questions in other areas of philosophy including epistemology, philosophy of science, metaphysics, and ethics. Key concepts and debates about the notions of meaning, truth, reference, and language use, with relations to psycholinguistics and formal semantics. Readings from philosophers such as Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Grice, and Kripke. Prerequisites: 80 and background in logic.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Crimmins, M. (PI)

PHIL 281C: Slurs and derogatory language (PHIL 181C)

Do slurring words differ in semantic character from their so-called neutral counterparts? If so how do we explain the difference in meaning between a slur and its neutral counterpart. Or is slurring better explained by appeal to the resources of pragmatics, speech act theory or sociolinguistics? What is the source of the offensiveness of a slur? How can mere words subordinate and marginalize? We attempt to answer these and other questions about slurs and derogatory language. nA previous course in either the philosophy of language or linguistic semantics or pragmatics is strongly recommended, though students without such background who are willing to do additional reading to fill in gaps in their knowledge are also welcome.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Taylor, K. (PI)

PHIL 287: Philosophy of Action (PHIL 187)

(Graduate students register for 287.) Contemporary research in the philosophy of action. Topics include: What is it to be an agent? Is there a philosophically defensible contrast between being an agent and being a locus of causal forces to which one is subject? What is it to act purposively? What is intention? What is the relation between intention and belief? What is it to act intentionally? What is it to act for a reason? What is the relation between explaining why someone acted by citing the reasons for which she acted and causal explanation of her action? What is the relation between theoretical and practical rationality? What is the nature of our knowledge of our own intentional activity? What is it to act autonomously? What is shared cooperative activity? Prerequisite: 80.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 301: Dissertation Development Proseminar

A required seminar for third year philosophy PhD students, designed to extend and consolidate work done in the dissertation development seminar the previous summer.
Terms: Aut, Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Code, A. (PI)

PHIL 315: Aristotle's Protrepticus and its Background (CLASSICS 346)

In this seminar, we shall read Aristotle's Protrepticus. This is an early work of Aristotle that attempts to turn the reader to a philosophic life and it is by far the least read of his works on ethics. It was only recovered in the 19th century and only in the past 15 years or so do we have a reliable text. Thus studies of it are very much underdeveloped. We shall also read as background some other protreptic works by Plato and the rhetorician Isocrates. 2 unit option is only for Philosophy PhD students beyond the second year.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bobonich, C. (PI)

PHIL 322: Hume

Hume's theoretical philosophy emphasizing skepticism and naturalism, the theory of ideas and belief, space and time, causation and necessity, induction and laws of nature, miracles, a priori reasoning, the external world, and the identity of the self. 2 unit option only for Philosophy PhD students beyond the relevant PhD distribution requirements. Prerequisites: Undergraduates wishing to take this course must have previously taken History of Modern Philosophy or the equivalent, and may only enroll with permission from the instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; De Pierris, G. (PI)

PHIL 327: Scientific Philosophy: From Kant to Kuhn and Beyond

Examines the development of scientific philosophy from Kant, through the Naturphilosophie of Schelling and Hegel, to the neo-Kantian scientific tradition initiated by Hermann von Helmholtz and the neo-Kantian history and philosophy of science of Ernst Cassirer and Thomas Kuhn. Proposes a post-Kuhnian approach to the history and philosophy of science in light of these developments.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Friedman, M. (PI)

PHIL 333: Philosophy, Literature, and the Arts Core Seminar (DLCL 333, ENGLISH 333)

This course serves as the Core Seminar for the PhD Minor in Philosophy, Literature, and the Arts. It introduces students to a wide range of topics at the intersection of philosophy with literary and arts criticism. In this year's installment of the seminar, we will focus on issues about the nature of fiction, about the experience of appreciation and what it does for us, about the ethical consequences of imaginative fictions, and about different conceptions of the importance of the arts in life more broadly. The seminar is intended for graduate students. It is suitable for theoretically ambitious students of literature and the arts, philosophers with interests in value theory, aesthetics, and topics in language and mind, and other students with strong interest in the psychological importance of engagement with the arts. May be repeat for credit
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 351D: Measurement Theory

What does it mean to assign numbers to beliefs (as Bayesian probability theorists do), desires (as economists and philosophers who discuss utilities do), or perceptions (as researchers in psychometrics often do)? What is the relationship between the numbers and the underlying reality they purport to measure? Measurement theory helps answer these questions using representation theorems, which link structural features of numerical scales (such as probabilities, utilities, or degrees of loudness) to structural features of relations (such as comparative belief, preference, or judgments that one sound is louder than another).nThis course will introduce students to measurement theory, and its applications in psychophysics and decision theory. n2 unit option only for Philosophy PhD students who are past their second year.nPrerequisites: Undergraduates wishing to take this course must have previously taken PHIL150, and may only enroll with permission from the instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Briggs, R. (PI)

PHIL 356C: Logic and Artificial Intelligence (CS 257)

This is a course at the intersection of philosophical logic and artificial intelligence. After reviewing recent work in AI that has leveraged ideas from logic, we will slow down and study in more detail various components of high-level intelligence and the tools that have been designed to capture those components. Specific areas will include: reasoning about belief and action, causality and counterfactuals, legal and normative reasoning, natural language inference, and Turing-complete logical formalisms including (probabilistic) logic programming and lambda calculus. Our main concern will be understanding the logical tools themselves, including their formal properties and how they relate to other tools such as probability and statistics. At the end, students should expect to have learned a lot more about logic, and also to have a sense for how logic has been and can be used in AI applications. Prerequisites: A background in logic, at least at the level of Phil 151, will be expected. In case a student is willing to put in the extra work to catch up, it may be possible to take the course with background equivalent to Phil 150 or CS 157. A background in AI, at the level of CS 221, would also be very helpful and will at times be expected. 2 unit option only for PhD students past the second year. Course website: http://web.stanford.edu/class/cs257/
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHIL 385B: Topics in Metaphysics and Epistemology

2 unit option for PhD students only. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-4 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Perry, J. (PI)

PHIL 500: Advanced Dissertation Seminar

Presentation of dissertation work in progress by seminar participants. May be repeated for credit.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 1 | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit
Instructors: ; Malmgren, A. (PI)
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