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AA 100: Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics

This class introduces the basics of aeronautics and astronautics through applied physics, hands-on activities, and real world examples. The principles of fluid flow, flight, and propulsion for aircraft will be illustrated, including the creation of lift and drag, aerodynamic performance including takeoff, climb, range, and landing. The principles of orbits, maneuvers, space environment, and propulsion for spacecraft will be illustrated. Students will be exposed to the history and challenges of aeronautics and astronautics.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

AA 116Q: Electric Automobiles and Aircraft

Transportation accounts for nearly one-third of American energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and three-quarters of American oil consumption. It has crucial impacts on climate change, air pollution, resource depletion, and national security. Students wishing to address these issues reconsider how we move, finding sustainable transportation solutions. An introduction to the issue, covering the past and present of transportation and its impacts; examining alternative fuel proposals; and digging deeper into the most promising option: battery electric vehicles. Energy requirements of air, ground, and maritime transportation; design of electric motors, power control systems, drive trains, and batteries; and technologies for generating renewable energy. Two opportunities for hands-on experiences with electric cars. Prerequisites: Introduction to calculus and Physics AP or elementary mechanics.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

AA 118N: How to Design a Space Mission: from Concept to Execution

Space exploration is truly fascinating. From the space race led by governments as an outgrowth of the Cold War to the new era of space commercialization led by private companies and startups, more than 50 years have passed, characterized by great leaps forward and discoveries. We will learn how space missions are designed, from concept to execution, based on the professional experience of the lecturer and numerous examples of spacecraft, including unique hardware demonstrations by startups of the Silicon Valley. We will study the essentials of systems engineering as applicable to a variety of mission types, for communication, navigation, science, commercial, and military applications. We will explore the various elements of a space mission, including the spacecraft, ground, and launch segments with their functionalities. Special emphasis will be given to the design cycle, to understand how spacecraft are born, from the stakeholders' needs, through analysis, synthesis, all the way to their integration and validation. We will compare the current designs with those employed in the early days of the space age, and show the importance of economics in the development of spacecraft. Finally, we will brainstorm startup ideas and apply the concepts learned to a notional space mission design as a team.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; D'Amico, S. (PI)

AA 120Q: Building Trust in Autonomy

Major advances in both hardware and software have accelerated the development of autonomous systems that have the potential to bring significant benefits to society. Google, Tesla, and a host of other companies are building autonomous vehicles that can improve safety and provide flexible mobility options for those who cannot drive themselves. On the aviation side, the past few years have seen the proliferation of unmanned aircraft that have the potential to deliver medicine and monitor agricultural crops autonomously. In the financial domain, a significant portion of stock trades are performed using automated trading algorithms at a frequency not possible by human traders. How do we build these systems that drive our cars, fly our planes, and invest our money? How do we develop trust in these systems? What is the societal impact on increased levels of autonomy?
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

AA 121Q: It IS Rocket Science!

It's an exciting time for space exploration. Companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin are launching rockets into space and bringing them back for reuse. NASA is developing the world's most powerful rocket. Startups are deploying constellations of hundreds of cubesats for communications, navigation, and earth monitoring. The human race has recently gotten a close look at Pluto, soft landed on a comet, and orbited two asteroids. The upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope will allow astronomers to look closer to the beginning of time than ever before. The workings of space systems remain mysterious to most people, but in this seminar we'll pull back the curtain for a look at the basics of "rocket science." How does a SpaceX rocket get into space? How do Skybox satellites capture images for Google Earth? How did the New Horizons probe find its way to Pluto? How do we communicate with spacecraft that are so distant? We'll explore these topics and a range of others during the quarter. We'll cover just enough physics and math to determine where to look in the sky for a spacecraft, planet, or star. Then we'll check our math by going outside for an evening pizza party observing these objects in the night sky. We'll also visit a spacecraft production facility or Mission Operations Center to see theory put into practice.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

AA 122N: Dawn of the Drones: How Will Unmanned Aerial Systems Change Our World?

Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have exploded on the scene in recent years, igniting a national debate about how to use them, how to regulate them, and how to make them safe. This seminar will dive into the many engineering challenges behind the headlines: in the future, how will we engineer UASs ranging in size from simple RC toys to highly-sophisticated autonomous scientific and military data gathering systems? This seminar will examine the key elements required to conceive, implement, deploy, and operate state-of-the-art of drone systems: What variety of problems can they help us solve? How autonomous are they and how autonomous do they need to be? What are the key technical bottlenecks preventing widespread deployment? How are they different from commercial aircraft? What kinds of companies will serve the market for UAV-related products and services? What business models will be successful and why? We will emphasize aspects of design, autonomy, reliability, navigation, sensing, and perception, as well as coordination/collaboration through a series of case studies drawn from our recent experience. Examples include imaging efforts to map the changing coral reefs in the South Pacific, using and controlling swarms of unmanned systems to perform search and rescue missions over large areas, and package delivery systems over large metropolitan areas. Hands-on experience with Stanford-developed UASs will be part of the seminar.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Alonso, J. (PI)

ANTHRO 169: The Ecology of Cuisine: Food, Nutrition, and the Evolution of the Human Diet (ANTHRO 269)

This course is an interdisciplinary approach to understanding human food consumption and nutrition, incorporating biological, evolutionary, ecological and social perspectives. Topics include a broad survey of primate diets and their physiological and behavioral correlates; fossil and archaeological evidence for early human diets; adaptations to dietary shifts since the Neolithic; infant and early child feeding practices and their role in shaping human social arrangements, metabolic syndrome, food security, food taboos; the origins of spices; cultural diversity in the social uses and meanings of food and the sharing of food; gathering, hunting and locavorism as high hipster cuisine. Emphasis is on understanding the diversity of human foodways through time and space: how biology, culture, and ecology interact to shape the food we eat, and how the food we eat shapes us.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SI, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ANTHRO 171: The Biology and Evolution of Language (ANTHRO 271, HUMBIO 145L)

Lecture course surveying the biology, linguistic functions, and evolution of the organs of speech and speech centers in the brain, language in animals and humans, the evolution of language itself, and the roles of innateness vs. culture in language. Suitable both for general education and as preparation for further studies in anthropology, biology, linguistics, medicine, psychology, and speech & language therapy. Anthropology concentration: CS, EE. No prerequisites.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4-5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ANTHRO 175: Human Skeletal Anatomy (ANTHRO 275, BIO 174, BIO 274, HUMBIO 180)

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Klein, R. (PI)

APPPHYS 61: Science as a Creative Process (BIO 61)

What is the process of science, and why does creativity matter? We'll delve deeply into the applicability of science in addressing a vast range of real-world problems. This course is designed to teach the scientific method as it's actually practiced by working scientists. It will cover how to ask a well-posed question, how to design a good experiment, how to collect and interpret quantitative data, how to recover from error, and how to communicate findings. Facts matter! Course topics will include experimental design, statistics and statistical significance, formulating appropriate controls, modeling, peer review, and more. The course will incorporate a significant hands-on component featuring device fabrication, testing, and measurement. Among other "Dorm Science" activities, we'll be distributing Arduino microcontroller kits and electronic sensors, then use these items, along with other materials, to complete a variety of group and individual projects outside the classroom. The final course assignment will be to develop and write a scientific grant proposal to test a student-selected myth or scientific controversy. Although helpful, no prior experience with electronics or computer programming is required. Recommended for freshmen.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

APPPHYS 77N: Functional Materials and Devices

Preference to freshmen. Exploration via case studies how functional materials have been developed and incorporated into modern devices. Particular emphasis is on magnetic and dielectric materials and devices. Recommended: high school physics course including electricity and magnetism.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Suzuki, Y. (PI)

APPPHYS 79Q: Energy Options for the 21st Century

Preference to sophomores.. Choices for meeting the future energy needs of the U.S. and the world. Basic physics of energy sources, technologies that might be employed, and related public policy issues. Trade-offs and societal impacts of different energy sources. Policy options for making rational choices for a sustainable world energy economy.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Fox, J. (PI)

APPPHYS 100: The Questions of Clay: Craft, Creativity and Scientific Process

Students will create individual studio portfolios of ceramic work and pursue technical investigations of clay properties and the firing process using modern scientific equipment. Emphasis on development of creative process; parallels between science and traditional craft; integration of creative expression with scientific method and analysis. Prior ceramics experience desirable but not necessary. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: any level of background in physics, Instructor permission.
Terms: Win, alternate years, not given next year | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-CE, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Mabuchi, H. (PI)

ARCHLGY 126: Archaeobotany (ARCHLGY 226)

Archaeobotany, also known as paleoethnobotany, is the study of the interrelationships of plants and humans through the archaeological record. Knowledge and understanding of Archaeobotany sufficient to interpret, evaluate, and understand archaeobotanical data. Dominant approaches in the study of archaeobotanical remains: plant macro-remains, pollen, phytoliths, and starch grains in the identification of diet and environmental reconstruction.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Levin, M. (PI)

BIO 2N: Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease in a Changing World

This seminar will explore the ways in which anthropogenic change, climate change, habitat destruction, land use change, and species invasions effects the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases. Topics will include infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, livestock, and crops, effects of disease on threatened species, disease spillover, emerging diseases, and the role of disease in natural systems. Course will be taught through a combination of popular and scientific readings, discussion, and lecture. .
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 7S: Introduction to Biology

Introduction to several major fields of biology, including biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, evolution, and biodiversity. Introduces the general approaches used by scientists to study life and explores recent advances in each area during weekly discussion section. Not intended for biology majors, but provides the foundation for higher-level biology courses. Prerequisite: high school biology.
Terms: Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Schwartz, E. (PI)

BIO 8N: Human Origins

A survey of the anatomical and behavioral evidence for human evolution and of the increasingly important information from molecular genetics. Emphasis on the split between the human and chimpanzee lines 6-7 million years ago, the appearance of the australopiths by 4.1 million years ago, the emergence of the genus Homo about 2.5 million years ago, the spread of Homo from Africa 1.7-1.6 million years ago, the subsequent divergence of Homo into different species on different continents, and the expansion of fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) from Africa about 50,000 years ago to replace the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Klein, R. (PI)

BIO 12N: Sensory Ecology of Marine Animals

Animals living in the oceans experience a highly varied range of environmental stimuli. An aquatic lifestyle requires an equally rich range of sensory adaptations, including some that are totally foreign to us. In this course we will examine sensory system in marine animals from both an environmental and behavioral perspective and from the point of view of neuroscience and information systems engineering.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Thompson, S. (PI)

BIO 25Q: Cystic fibrosis: from medical conundrum to precision medicine success story

Preference to sophomores. The class will explore cystic fibrosis (CF), the most prevalent fatal genetic disease in the US, as a scientific and medical whodunit. Through reading and discussion of medical and scientific literature, we will tackle questions that include: how was life expectancy with CF increased from weeks to decades without understanding the disease mechanism? Why is the disease so prevalent? Is there an advantage to being a carrier? Is CF a single disease or a continuum of physiological variation ¿or- what is a disease? How did research into CF lead to discovery of the underlying cause of most other genetic diseases as well?nnThrough critical reading of the scientific and medical literature, class discussion, field trips and meetings with genetic counselors, caregivers, patients, physicians and researchers, we will work to build a deep understanding of this disease, from the biochemical basis to the current controversies over pathogenic mechanisms, treatment strategies and the ethics and economics of genetic testing and astronomical drug costs.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kopito, R. (PI)

BIO 30: Ecology for Everyone

Everything is connected, but how? Ecology is the science of interactions and the changes they generate. This project-based course links individual behavior, population growth, species interactions, and ecosystem function. Introduction to measurement, observation, experimental design and hypothesis testing in field projects, mostly done in groups. The goal is to learn to think analytically about everyday ecological processes involving bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. The course uses basic statistics to analyze data; there are no math prerequisites except arithmetic. Open to everyone, including those who may be headed for more advanced courses in ecology and environmental science.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gordon, D. (PI)

BIO 32Q: Neuroethology: The Neural Control of Behavior (HUMBIO 91Q)

Preference to sophomores. Animal behavior offers insights about evolutionary adaptations and this seminar will discuss the origins of the study of animal behavior and its development to the present. How does the nervous system control behavior and how is it changed by behavior? We will analyze and discuss original research papers about the neural basis of behavior. The use and misuse of parallels between animal and human behavior. Possible field trip to observe animals in their natural habitat.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Fernald, R. (PI)

BIO 33N: Conservation Science and Practice

Preference to freshmen. This course will explore the potential for harmonizing people and nature, for achieving improved outcomes in the well-being of both as a result of conservation investments and interventions. We will consider biophysical, economic, social, and psychological perspectives, examining an array of conservation goals, from protecting endangered species to securing ecosystem services (such as flood control and climate stability) to alleviating poverty and improving mental well-being. We will also study the design and implementation of real conservation and human development efforts worldwide, among the many farmers, ranchers, fishing people, and others managing Earth's lands and waters. Highlights include a field trip to Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford¿s very own nature reserve, and guest visits of some impressive conservation leaders internationally.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 35N: Climate change ecology: Is it too late?

This Introductory Seminar will explore the consequences of climate change on ecological communities, focusing on two emerging concepts: "disequilibrium," which emphasizes that it can take long time for communities to respond to climate change because of species interactions, and "historical contingency," which proposes that the order in which species invade and disappear as communities re-assemble in response to climate change will determine which species will persist. The seminar will involve lecture, discussion, writing, and visit to Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Fukami, T. (PI)

BIO 45: Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology

Investigate yeast strains that are engineered to express the human tumor suppressor protein, p53, and use modern molecular methods to identify the functional consequences of p53 mutations isolated from tumor cells. Learn about the protein's role as Guardian of the Genome through lectures and by reading and discussing journal articles. Use molecular visualization programs to examine the structure of normal and mutant p53 proteins. Assay the ability of mutant p53 to direct expression of several reporter genes. During guided reflection, investigate further and identify what could be wrong with the p53 mutants you have been studying. Conduct lab experiments to test hypotheses, analyze data, and present your findings through a team oral presentation, as well as a scientific poster. There are no pre-requisites for this course. However, having taken CHEM 31X, or 31A and B, and 33 and being concurrently enrolled or past enrollment in Biology or Human Biology core will help. Note: This class has a $25 course fee.
Terms: Aut, Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

BIO 46: Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

The goal of this course is to develop an understanding of how to conduct biological research, using a topic in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Plant Biology as a practical example. This includes the complete scientific process: assessing background literature, generating testable hypotheses, learning techniques for field- and lab-based data collection, analyzing data using appropriate statistical methods, and writing and sharing results. To build these skills, this course focuses on the microorganisms associated with lichen epiphytes. Students, working in teams, develop novel research hypotheses and execute the necessary experiments and measurements to test these hypotheses. In addition, students will learn how to manipulate, visualize and analyze data in R. The capstone of the course is an oral defense of students' findings, as well as a research paper in the style of a peer-reviewed journal article. Labs are completed both on campus and at Jasper Ridge. Lab fee. Information about this class is available at http://bio44.stanford.edu. Satisfies WIM in Biology.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Satisfactory/No Credit

BIO 60: Introduction to Problem Solving in Biology

Why is Lyme disease spreading? How does HIV become drug resistant? How do other animals affect our disease risk? In BIO 60 students will examine actual case studies to experience how different scientific approaches are used to battle infectious disease. They will evaluate information presented in the popular media and the scientific literature, and will directly participate in the scientific process through hands-on collection, documentation and analyses of authentic scientific data. Students will cultivate their scientific curiosity by discovering the natural world with a Foldscope, the `origami paper microscope¿ (https://microcosmos.foldscope.com). Students will build critical thinking skills by creating hypotheses, and designing experiments that pertain to problems in infectious disease. Students will work in teams to expand their thinking and will practice communicating science to different audiences.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 61: Science as a Creative Process (APPPHYS 61)

What is the process of science, and why does creativity matter? We'll delve deeply into the applicability of science in addressing a vast range of real-world problems. This course is designed to teach the scientific method as it's actually practiced by working scientists. It will cover how to ask a well-posed question, how to design a good experiment, how to collect and interpret quantitative data, how to recover from error, and how to communicate findings. Facts matter! Course topics will include experimental design, statistics and statistical significance, formulating appropriate controls, modeling, peer review, and more. The course will incorporate a significant hands-on component featuring device fabrication, testing, and measurement. Among other "Dorm Science" activities, we'll be distributing Arduino microcontroller kits and electronic sensors, then use these items, along with other materials, to complete a variety of group and individual projects outside the classroom. The final course assignment will be to develop and write a scientific grant proposal to test a student-selected myth or scientific controversy. Although helpful, no prior experience with electronics or computer programming is required. Recommended for freshmen.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

BIO 81: Introduction to Ecology

This course will introduce you to the first principles of the science of ecology, the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Prerequisites: None.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 109A: The Human Genome and Disease (BIOC 109A, BIOC 209A, HUMBIO 158)

The variability of the human genome and the role of genomic information in research, drug discovery, and human health. Concepts and interpretations of genomic markers in medical research and real life applications. Human genomes in diverse populations. Original contributions from thought leaders in academia and industry and interaction between students and guest lecturers. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 109B: The Human Genome and Disease: Genetic Diversity and Personalized Medicine (BIOC 109B)

Continuation of 109A/209A. Genetic drift: the path of human predecessors out of Africa to Europe and then either through Asia to Australia or through northern Russia to Alaska down to the W. Coast of the Americas. Support for this idea through the histocompatibility genes and genetic sequences that predispose people to diseases. Guest lectures from academia and pharmaceutical companies. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 110: Chromatin Regulation of the Genome (BIO 210)

Maintenance of the genome is a prerequisite for life. In eukaryotes, all DNA-templated processes are tightly connected to chromatin structure and function. This course will explore epigenetic and chromatin regulation of cellular processes related to aging, cancer, stem cell pluripotency, metabolic homeostasis, and development. Course material integrates current literature with a foundational review of histone modifications and nucleosome composition in epigenetic inheritance, transcription, replication, cell division and DNA damage responses. Prerequisite: BIO 41 or consent of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Morrison, A. (PI)

BIO 115: The Hidden Kingdom - Evolution, Ecology and Diversity of Fungi (BIO 239)

Fungi are critical, yet often hidden, components of the biosphere. They regulate decomposition, are primary partners in plant symbiosis and strongly impact agriculture and economics. Students will explore the fascinating world of fungal biology, ecology and evolution via lecture, lab, field exercises and Saturday field trips that will provide traditional and molecular experiences in the collection, analysis and industrial use of diverse fungi. Students will chose an environmental niche, collect and identify resident fungi, and hypothesize about their community relationship. Prerequisite: Bio 43 recommended.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 117: Biology and Global Change (EARTHSYS 111, ESS 111)

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

BIO 118: Genetic Analysis of Biological Processes

Focus is on using mutations and genetic analysis to study biological and medical questions. The first portion of the course covers how the identification and analysis of mutations can be used in model systems to investigate biological processes such as development and metabolism. In the second portion of the course, we focus on the use of existing genetic variation in humans and other species to identify disease-associated genes as well as to investigate variation in morphological traits such as body size and shape. This course will be offered for a final time in Winter 2017-18 and then discontinued. Students who have taken BIO 82 may not enroll in BIO 118.
Terms: Win, offered once only | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Simon, M. (PI)

BIO 119: Evolution of Marine Ecosystems (EARTHSYS 122, GS 123, GS 223B)

Life originally evolved in the ocean. When, why, and how did the major transitions occur in the history of marine life? What triggered the rapid evolution and diversification of animals in the Cambrian, after more than 3.5 billion years of Earth's history? What caused Earth's major mass extinction events? How do ancient extinction events compare to current threats to marine ecosystems? How has the evolution of primary producers impacted animals, and how has animal evolution impacted primary producers? In this course, we will review the latest evidence regarding these major questions in the history of marine ecosystems. We will develop familiarity with the most common groups of marine animal fossils. We will also conduct original analyses of paleontological data, developing skills both in the framing and testing of scientific hypotheses and in data analysis and presentation.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Heim, N. (PI); Payne, J. (PI)

BIO 137: Plant Genetics

Gene analysis, mutagenesis, transposable elements; developmental genetics of flowering and embryo development; biochemical genetics of plant metabolism; scientific and societal lessons from transgenic plants. Satisfies Central Menu Area 2. Prerequisite: Biology core or consent of instructor. Satisfies WIM in Biology.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 142: Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (EARTHSYS 143, ESS 143, ESS 243)

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Welander, P. (PI)

BIO 150: Human Behavioral Biology (HUMBIO 160)

Multidisciplinary. How to approach complex normal and abnormal behaviors through biology. How to integrate disciplines including sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sapolsky, R. (PI)

BIO 153: Cellular Neuroscience: Cell Signaling and Behavior (PSYCH 120)

Neural interactions underlying behavior. Prerequisites: PSYCH 1 or basic biology.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Wine, J. (PI); Tong, L. (TA)

BIO 158: Developmental Neurobiology (BIO 258)

For advanced undergraduates and coterminal students. The principles of nervous system development from the molecular control of patterning, cell-cell interactions, and trophic factors to the level of neural systems and the role of experience in influencing brain structure and function. Topics: neural induction and patterning cell lineage, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axonal pathfinding, synapse elimination, the role of activity, critical periods, and the development of behavior. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 2 or 3. Prerequisite: BIO 42 or equivalent.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIO 174: Human Skeletal Anatomy (ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 274, HUMBIO 180)

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Klein, R. (PI)

BIOC 109A: The Human Genome and Disease (BIO 109A, BIOC 209A, HUMBIO 158)

The variability of the human genome and the role of genomic information in research, drug discovery, and human health. Concepts and interpretations of genomic markers in medical research and real life applications. Human genomes in diverse populations. Original contributions from thought leaders in academia and industry and interaction between students and guest lecturers. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOC 109B: The Human Genome and Disease: Genetic Diversity and Personalized Medicine (BIO 109B)

Continuation of 109A/209A. Genetic drift: the path of human predecessors out of Africa to Europe and then either through Asia to Australia or through northern Russia to Alaska down to the W. Coast of the Americas. Support for this idea through the histocompatibility genes and genetic sequences that predispose people to diseases. Guest lectures from academia and pharmaceutical companies. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOE 42: Physical Biology

BIOE 42 is designed to introduce students to general engineering principles that have emerged from theory and experiments in biology. Topics covered will cover the scales from molecules to cells to organisms, including fundamental principles of entropy, diffusion, and continuum mechanics. These topics will link to several biological questions, including DNA organization, ligand binding, cytoskeletal mechanics, and the electromagnetic origin of nerve impulses. In all cases, students will learn to develop toy models that can explain quantitative measurements of the function of biological systems. Prerequisites: MATH 19, 20, 21 CHEM 31A, B (or 31X), PHYSICS 41; strongly recommended: CS 106A, CME 100 or MATH 51, and CME 106; or instructor approval.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Huang, K. (PI)

BIOE 44: Fundamentals for Engineering Biology Lab

Introduction to next-generation techniques in genetic, molecular, biochemical, and cellular engineering. Lab modules build upon current research including: gene and genome engineering via decoupled design and construction of genetic material; component engineering focusing on molecular design and quantitative analysis of experiments; device and system engineering using abstracted genetically encoded objects; and product development based on useful applications of biological technologies. Concurrent or previous enrollment in BIO 82 or BIO 83.
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

BIOE 103: Systems Physiology and Design

Physiology of intact human tissues, organs, and organ systems in health and disease, and bioengineering tools used (or needed) to probe and model these physiological systems. Topics: Clinical physiology, network physiology and system design/plasticity, diseases and interventions (major syndromes, simulation, and treatment, instrumentation for intervention, stimulation, diagnosis, and prevention), and new technologies including tissue engineering and optogenetics.  Discussions of pathology of these systems in a clinical-case based format, with a view towards identifying unmet clinical needs.  Learning computational skills that not only enable simulation of these systems but also apply more broadly to biomedical data analysis. Prerequisites: CME 102; PHYSICS 41; BIO 82, BIO 84.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

BIOE 103B: Systems Physiology and Design

*ONLINE Offering of BIOE 103. This pilot class, BIOE103B, is an entirely online offering with the same content, learning goals, and prerequisites as BIOE 103. Students attend class by watching videos and completing assignments remotely. Students may attend recitation and office hours in person, but cannot attend the BIOE103 in-person lecture due to room capacity restraints.* Physiology of intact human tissues, organs, and organ systems in health and disease, and bioengineering tools used (or needed) to probe and model these physiological systems. Topics: Clinical physiology, network physiology and system design/plasticity, diseases and interventions (major syndromes, simulation, and treatment, instrumentation for intervention, stimulation, diagnosis, and prevention), and new technologies including tissue engineering and optogenetics. Discussions of pathology of these systems in a clinical-case based format, with a view towards identifying unmet clinical needs. Learning computational skills that not only enable simulation of these systems but also apply more broadly to biomedical data analysis. Prerequisites: CME 102; PHYSICS 41; BIO 82, BIO 84. strongly recommended PHYSICS 43; or instructor approval.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

BIOE 123: Biomedical System Prototyping Lab

The Bioengineering System Prototyping Laboratory is a fast-paced, team-based system engineering experience, in which teams of 2-3 students design and build a fermenter that meets a set of common requirements along with a set of unique team-determined requirements. Students learn-by-doing hands-on skills in electronics and mechanical design and fabrication. Teams also develop process skills and an engineering mindset by aligning specifications with requirements, developing output metrics and measuring performance, and creating project proposals and plans. The course culminates in demonstration of a fully functioning fermenter that meets the teams' self-determined metrics. n nLearning goals: 1) Design, fabricate, integrate, and characterize practical electronic and mechanical hardware systems that meet clear requirements in the context of Bioengineering (i.e., build something that works). 2) Use prototyping tools, techniques, and instruments, including: CAD, 3D printing, laser cutting, microcontrollers, and oscilloscopes. 3) Create quantitative system specifications and test measurement plans to demonstrate that a design meets user requirements. 4) Communicate design elements, choices, specifications, and performance through design reviews and written reports. 5) Collaborate as a team member on a complex system design project (e.g., a fermenter). n nLimited enrollment, with priority for Bioengineering undergraduates. Prerequisites: Physics 43, or equivalent. Experience with Matlab and/or Python is recommended.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

BIOE 140: Physical Biology of Macromolecules

Principles of statistical physics, thermodynamics, and kinetics with applications to molecular biology. Topics include entropy, temperature, chemical forces, enzyme kinetics, free energy and its uses, self assembly, cooperative transitions in macromolecules, molecular machines, feedback, and accurate replication. Prerequisites: MATH 19, 20, 21; CHEM 31A, B (or 31X); strongly recommended: PHYSICS 41, CME 100 or MATH 51, and CME 106; or instructor approval.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Prakash, M. (PI)

BIOHOPK 14: Bio-logging and Bio-telemetry

Bio-logging is a rapidly growing discipline that includes diverse fields such as consumer electronics, medicine, and marine biology. The use of animal-attached digital tags is a powerful approach to study the movement and ecology of individuals over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. This course is an introduction to bio-logging methods and analysis. Using whales as a model system, students will learn how use multi-sensor tags to study behavioral biomechanics.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Goldbogen, J. (PI)

BIOHOPK 47: Ecology and Ecological Physiology

This course is a field-based inquiry into rocky intertidal shores that introducesnstudents to ecology and environmental physiology and the research methods used to study them. Students will learn how to detect patterns quantitatively in nature through appropriate sampling methods & statistical analysis. Following exploration of appropriate background material in class and through exploration of the scientific literature, students will learn how to formulate testable hypotheses regarding the underlying causes of the patterns they discern. A variety of different aspects of ecology and physiology will be investigated cooperatively by the students during the quarter, culminating in development of an individual final paper in the form of a research proposal based on data collected during the course. The course will provide a broad conceptual introduction to the underlying biological principles that influence adaptation to the planet¿s dynamic habitats, as well as inquiry-based experience in how to explore and understand complex systems in nature. nThis course fulfills the same laboratory requirement as BIO 47. Satisfies WIM in Biology.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOHOPK 150H: Ecological Mechanics (BIOHOPK 250H)

(Graduate students register for 250H.) The principles of life's physical interactions. We will explore basic physics. fluid mechanics, thermal dynamics, and materials science to see how the principles of these fields can be used to investigate ecology at levels from the individual to the community. Topics include: diffusion, boundary layers, fluid-dynamic forces, locomotion, heat-budget models, fracture mechanics, adhesion, beam theory, the statistics of extremes, and the theory of self-organization. Open to students from all backgrounds. Some familiarity with basic physics and calculus advantageous but not necessary.
Terms: given next year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOHOPK 154H: Animal Diversity: An Introduction to Evolution of Animal Form and Function from Larvae to Adults (BIOHOPK 254H)

Survey of invertebrate diversity, emphasizing form and function of both adult and larval life history stages. Focuses on how morphology, life histories, and development contribute to current views of the evolutionary diversification of multicellular animals. Labs are a hands-on exploration of animal diversity using local marine species as examples, as well as techniques of obtaining, handling, and maintaining larvae from early development through settlement. Lectures, labs, plus field trips. Satisfies Central Menu Area 3 for Bio majors. Prerequisite: Biology core or consent of instructors.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 7 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOHOPK 155H: Developmental Biology and Evolution (BIOHOPK 255H)

(Graduate students register for 255) This course focusses on how animals form their basic body plans; from the formation of their germ layers; ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm, to how they are organized along the main developmental axes; the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The course will focus in part on the molecular mechanisms that underlie these developmental decisions from work carried out in established developmental model species. However, we will also explore the current understanding of how these mechanisms evolved from new insights from emerging models representing a broad range of animal phyla. The setting at Hopkins Marine Station will allow us to carry out experiments from animals collected in the field, and the course will involve a substantial lab component to complement concepts and approaches presented in lecture. nPre-requisites : Biocore or by permission of instructor
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOHOPK 161H: Invertebrate Zoology (BIOHOPK 261H)

(Graduate students register for 261H.) Survey of invertebrate diversity emphasizing form and function in a phylogenetic framework. Morphological diversity, life histories, physiology, and ecology of the major invertebrate groups, concentrating on local marine forms as examples. Current views on the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the invertebrates. Lectures, lab, plus field trips. Satisfies Central Menu Area 3 for Bio majors.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Watanabe, J. (PI)

BIOHOPK 163H: Oceanic Biology (BIOHOPK 263H)

(Graduate students register for 263H.) How the physics and chemistry of the oceanic environment affect marine plants and animals. Topics: seawater and ocean circulation, separation of light and nutrients in the two-layered ocean, oceanic food webs and trophic interactions, oceanic environments, biogeography, and global change. Lectures, discussion, and field trips. Satisfies Central Menu Area 4 for Bio majors. Recommended: PHYSICS 21 or 51, CHEM 31, or consent of instructor.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOHOPK 172H: Marine Ecology: From Organisms to Ecosystems (BIOHOPK 272H)

(Graduate students register for 272H.) This course incorporates the approaches of experimental ecology, biomechanics (ecomechanics), and physiology to develop an integrated perspective on the factors that govern the structures of marine ecosystems and how environment change, including anthropogenic influences, affects ecosystems' species composition and health. Focus is on rocky intertidal, kelp forest, estuarine, and midwater ecosystems of Monterey Bay. Experimental projects done in the field offer experience in a variety of ecological techniques and in analysis of ecological data. Students will engage in presentation and debates of current topics in marine ecology and conservation. Satisfies Central Menu Area 4 for Bio majors. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Fulfills WIM in Biology.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Micheli, F. (PI)

BIOHOPK 179H: Physiological Ecology of Marine Megafauna (BIOHOPK 279H)

(Graduate students register for 279H.) The ocean is home to the largest animals of all-time. How, when, and why did gigantism evolve in different taxa? What are the consequences of large body size? This course will focus on how biological processes scale with body size, with an emphasis on oceanic megafauna including marine mammals, birds, fishes, and reptiles. In particular, the course will explore the functional mechanisms that generate the scaling relationships for physiological and ecological traits, such as metabolism, ecosystem function and body size evolution. Students will also be introduced to state-of-the-art technologies used to student marine megafauna in some of the most logistically challenging habitats on earth.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

BIOHOPK 182H: Stanford at Sea (BIOHOPK 323H, EARTHSYS 323, ESS 323)

(Graduate students register for 323H.) Five weeks of marine science including oceanography, marine physiology, policy, maritime studies, conservation, and nautical science at Hopkins Marine Station, followed by five weeks at sea aboard a sailing research vessel in the Pacific Ocean. Shore component comprised of three multidisciplinary courses meeting daily and continuing aboard ship. Students develop an independent research project plan while ashore, and carry out the research at sea. In collaboration with the Sea Education Association of Woods Hole, MA. Only 6 units may count towards the Biology major.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 16 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

BIOHOPK 185H: Ecology and Conservation of Kelp Forest Communities (BIOHOPK 285H)

(Graduate students register for 285H.) Five week course. Daily lectures, labs, and scuba dives focused on kelp forest biology. Topics include identification and natural history of resident organisms, ecological processes that maintain biodiversity and community organization, field methods, data analysis, and research diving techniques. Class projects contribute to ongoing studies associated with Hopkins Marine Life Observatory. It is recommended that students complete one of Stanford's Scientific Diver Training sessions, offered during spring break and the week before the course starts, although this is not a requirement. Prerequisites: consent of instructor; advanced scuba certification and scuba equipment.
Terms: Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Watanabe, J. (PI)

BIOHOPK 187H: Sensory Ecology (BIOHOPK 287H)

(Graduate students register for 287H.) Topics: the ways animals receive, filter, and process information gleaned from the environment, sensory receptor mechanisms, neural processing, specialization to life underwater, communication within and between species, importance of behavior to ecosystem structure and dynamics, impact of acoustic and light pollution on marine animals. Emphasis is on the current scientific literature. The laboratory portion of the class explores sensory mechanisms using neurobiological methods and methods of experimental animal behavior.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Thompson, S. (PI)

CEE 63: Weather and Storms (CEE 263C)

Daily and severe weather and global climate. Topics: structure and composition of the atmosphere, fog and cloud formation, rainfall, local winds, wind energy, global circulation, jet streams, high and low pressure systems, inversions, el Niño, la Niña, atmosphere/ocean interactions, fronts, cyclones, thunderstorms, lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes, pollutant transport, global climate and atmospheric optics.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

CEE 64: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions (CEE 263D)

Survey of Survey of air pollution and global warming and their renewable energy solutions. Topics: evolution of the Earth's atmosphere, history of discovery of chemicals in the air, bases and particles in urban smog, visibility, indoor air pollution, acid rain, stratospheric and Antarctic ozone loss, the historic climate record, causes and effects of global warming, impacts of energy systems on pollution and climate, renewable energy solutions to air pollution and global warming. UG Reqs: GER: DBNatSci
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Jacobson, M. (PI)

CEE 70N: Water, Public Health, and Engineering

Preference to frosh. Linkages between water, wastewater and public health, with an emphasis on engineering interventions. Topics include the history of water and wastewater infrastructure development in the U.S. and Europe; evolution of epidemiological approaches for water-related health challenges; biological and chemical contaminants in water and wastewater and their management; and current trends and challenges in access to water and sanitation around the world. Identifying ways in which freshwater contributes to human health; exposure routes for water- and sanitation-illness. Classifying illnesses by pathogen type and their geographic distribution. Identifying the health and economic consequences of water- and sanitation-related illnesses; costs and benefits of curative and preventative interventions. Interpreting data related to epidemiological and environmental concepts. No previous experience in engineering is required.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

CEE 178: Introduction to Human Exposure Analysis (CEE 276)

(Graduate students register for 276.) Scientific and engineering issues involved in quantifying human exposure to toxic chemicals in the environment. Pollutant behavior, inhalation exposure, dermal exposure, and assessment tools. Overview of the complexities, uncertainties, and physical, chemical, and biological issues relevant to risk assessment. Lab projects. Recommended: MATH 51. Apply at first class for admission.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Kopperud, R. (PI)

CEE 195: Fundamentals of Structural Geology (GS 111)

Techniques for mapping using GPS and differential geometry to characterize structures; dimensional analysis and scaling relations; kinematics of deformation and flow; measurement and analysis of stress; elastic deformation and properties of rock; brittle deformation including fracture and faulting; linear viscous flow including folding and magma dynamics; model development and methodology. Models of tectonic processes are constructed and solutions visualized using MATLAB. Prerequisites: GS 1, MATH 51
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

CHEM 25N: Science in the News

Preference to freshmen. Possible topics include: diseases such as avian flu, HIV, and malaria; environmental issues such as climate change, atmospheric pollution, and human population; energy sources in the future; evolution; stem cell research; nanotechnology; and drug development. Focus is on the scientific basis for these topics as a basis for intelligent discussion of societal and political implications. Sources include the popular media and scientific media for the nonspecialist, especially those available on the web.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Andersen, H. (PI)

CHEM 29N: Chemistry in the Kitchen

Preference to Freshmen. This course examines the chemistry relevant to food and drink preparation, both in homes and in restaurants, which makes what we consume more pleasurable. Good cooking is more often considered an art rather than a science, but a small bit of understanding goes a long way to make the preparation and consumption of food and drink more enjoyable. The intention is to have demonstrations and tastings as a part of every class meeting. We will examine some rather familiar items in this course: eggs, dairy products, meats, breads, vegetables, pastries, and carbonated beverages. We shall playfully explore the chemistry that turns food into meals. A high-school chemistry background is assumed; bring to class a good appetite and a healthy curiosity.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Zare, R. (PI)

CHEM 31A: Chemical Principles I

For students with moderate or no background in chemistry. Stoichiometry; periodicity; electronic structure and bonding; gases; enthalpy; phase behavior. Emphasis is on skills to address structural and quantitative chemical questions; lab provides practice. Recitation.
Terms: Aut, Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

CHEM 31B: Chemical Principles II

Chemical equilibrium; acids and bases; oxidation and reduction reactions; chemical thermodynamics; kinetics. Lab. Prerequisite: CHEM 31A.
Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

CHEM 31X: Chemical Principles Accelerated

Accelerated; for students with substantial chemistry background. Chemical equilibria concepts, equilibrium constants, acids and bases, chemical thermodynamics, quantum concepts, models of ionic and covalent bonding, atomic and molecular orbital theory, periodicity, and bonding properties of matter. Recitation. Prerequisites: AP chemistry score of 5 or passing score on chemistry placement test, and AP Calculus AB score of 4 or Math 20. Recommended: high school physics.
Terms: Aut | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Cox, C. (PI); Moerner, W. (PI)

CHEM 33: Structure and Reactivity of Organic Molecules

Introduction to organic chemistry. Learn to relate three dimensional structure of organic molecules to their chemical and physical properties. Introduced to a variety of functional groups that exhibit patterns of reactivity and learn how to predict products of a reaction in the context of thermodynamics and kinetics. Two hour weekly lab section accompanies the course to introduce the techniques of separation and identification of organic compounds. Prerequisite: 31A,B, or 31X, or AP Chemistry score of 5.
Terms: Win, Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

CHEM 134: Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

Classical analysis methods, statistical analyses, chromatography, and spectroscopy will be covered with an emphasis upon quantitative measurements and data analysis. WIM course with full lab reports and oral communication. Concludes with student-developed quantitative project. Prerequisite: Chem 35
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Cox, C. (PI); Dai, H. (PI)

CHEMENG 20: Introduction to Chemical Engineering (ENGR 20)

Overview of chemical engineering through discussion and engineering analysis of physical and chemical processes. Topics: overall staged separations, material and energy balances, concepts of rate processes, energy and mass transport, and kinetics of chemical reactions. Applications of these concepts to areas of current technological importance: biotechnology, energy, production of chemicals, materials processing, and purification. Prerequisite: CHEM 31.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

CHEMENG 80Q: Art, Chemistry, and Madness: The Science of Art Materials

Preference to sophomores. Chemistry of natural and synthetic pigments in five historical palettes: earth (paleolithic), classical (Egyptian, Greco-Roman), medieval European (Middle Ages), Renaissance (old masters), and synthetic (contemporary). Composite nature of paints using scanning electron microscopy images; analytical techniques used in art conservation, restoration, and determination of provenance; and inherent health hazards. Paintings as mechanical structures. Hands-on laboratory includes stretching canvas, applying gesso grounds, grinding pigments, preparing egg tempera paint, bamboo and quill pens, gilding and illumination, and papermaking.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

CHPR 130: Human Nutrition (HUMBIO 130)

The study of food, and the nutrients and substances therein. Their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease. Emphasis is on the biological, chemical, and physiological processes by which humans ingest, digest, absorb, transport, utilize, and excrete food. Dietary composition and individual choices are discussed in relationship to the food supply, and to population and cultural, race, ethnic, religious, and social economic diversity. The relationships between nutrition and disease; ethnic diets; vegetarianism; nutritional deficiencies; nutritional supplementation; phytochemicals. HUMBIO students must enroll in HUMBIO 130. CHPR master's students must enroll for a letter grade. Undergraduate prerequisite: Human Biology Core or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gardner, C. (PI)

COMPMED 80N: Animal behavior: sex, death, and sometimes food!

Preference to freshman. Behavior is what makes animals special (thirsty plants don't walk to water), but why do animals behave the way they do? What does their behavior tell us about their inner lives, and about ourselves? What do lipstick and cuckoos and fireflies have in common? Why would nobody want to be a penguin? What do mice say to each other in their pee-mail? Learning how to think about questions like these gives us a unique perspective on the natural world. Format: Discussion and criticism of video examples, documentaries, and research papers. Topics: History and approaches to animal behavior; development of behavior, from genetics to learning; mechanisms of behavior, from neurons to motivation; function of behavior, from honest signals to selfish genes; the phylogeny of behavior, from domestication to speciation; and modern applications of behavior, from abnormal behavior, to conservation, to animal welfare, and animal consciousness.
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Garner, J. (PI)

COMPMED 81N: Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of Mammals

Preference to freshmen. Emphasis is on a comparative approach to anatomy and physiology of a wide range of mammals, the unique adaptations of each species in terms of its anatomical, and behavioral characteristics, and how these species interact with human beings and other animals. Dissection required. Class size is limited to 16.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bouley, D. (PI)

COMPMED 84Q: Globally Emerging Zoonotic Diseases

Preference to sophomores. Infectious diseases impacting veterinary and human health around the world today. Mechanisms of disease, epidemiology, and underlying diagnostic, treatment and control principles associated with these pathogens.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Felt, S. (PI)

COMPMED 87Q: Laboratory Mouse in Biomedical Research

Preference to sophomores. Focus is on the laboratory mouse, a widely used and important research model. Topics include the ethics of animal use in research; the natural history, origin and husbandry of the mouse; characteristics of key mouse strains; its anatomy and physiology; common diseases and their effects on research; coat color genetics relative to human diseases; immunodeficient mouse models; and genetic engineering of mice. The laboratory includes necropsy, handling, introduction to anesthesia and surgery, identification methods, and common research techniques using live and dead mice. Enrollment limited to 14 students.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Nagamine, C. (PI)

EARTH 2: Climate and Society

How and why is the climate changing? How might a changing climate affect human society? And what can we do to alter the course of climate change and adapt to any climatic changes that do occur? This course provides an introduction to the natural science and social science of climate change. The focus is on what science tells us about the causes, consequences, and solutions to climate change, as well as on how scientific progress is made on these issues.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTH 42: Landscapes and Tectonics of the San Francisco Bay Area (GS 42)

Active faulting and erosion in the Bay Area, and its effects upon landscapes. Earth science concepts and skills through investigation of the valley, mountain, and coastal areas around Stanford. Faulting associated with the San Andreas Fault, coastal processes along the San Mateo coast, uplift of the mountains by plate tectonic processes, and landsliding in urban and mountainous areas. Field excursions; student projects.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Hilley, G. (PI)

EARTH 117: Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands (EARTHSYS 117, ESS 117)

Progression from volcanic processes through rock weathering and soil-ecosystem development to landscape evolution. The course starts with an investigation of volcanic processes, including the volcano structure, origin of magmas, physical-chemical factors of eruptions. Factors controlling rock weathering and soil development, including depth and nutrient levels impacting plant ecosystems, are explored next. Geomorphic processes of landscape evolution including erosion rates, tectonic/volcanic activity, and hillslope stability conclude the course. Methods for monitoring and predicting eruptions, defining spatial changes in landform, landform stability, soil production rates, and measuring biogeochemical processes are covered throughout the course. This course is restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

EARTHSYS 4: Coevolution of Earth and Life (GS 4)

Earth is the only planet in the universe currently known to harbor life. When and how did Earth become inhabited? How have biological activities altered the planet? How have environmental changes affected the evolution of life? Are we living in a sixth mass extinction? In this course, we will develop and use the tools of geology, paleontology, geochemistry, and modeling that allow us to reconstruct Earth¿s 4.5 billion year history and to reconstruct the interactions between life and its host planet over the past 4 billion years. We will also ask what this long history can tell us about life¿s likely future on Earth. We will also use One half-day field trip.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Payne, J. (PI)

EARTHSYS 8: The Oceans: An Introduction to the Marine Environment (ESS 8)

The course will provide a basic understanding of how the ocean functions as a suite of interconnected ecosystems, both naturally and under the influence of human activities. Emphasis is on the interactions between the physical and chemical environment and the dominant organisms of each ecosystem. The types of ecosystems discussed include coral reefs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, coastal upwelling systems, blue-water oceans, estuaries, and near-shore dead zones. Lectures, multimedia presentations, group activities, and tide-pooling day trip.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 10: Introduction to Earth Systems

For non-majors and prospective Earth Systems majors. Multidisciplinary approach using the principles of geology, biology, engineering, and economics to describe how the Earth operates as an interconnected, integrated system. Goal is to understand global change on all time scales. Focus is on sciences, technological principles, and sociopolitical approaches applied to solid earth, oceans, water, energy, and food and population. Case studies: environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, and resource sustainability.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 11: Introduction to Geology (GS 1)

Why are earthquakes, volcanoes, and natural resources located at specific spots on the Earth surface? Why are there rolling hills to the west behind Stanford, and soaring granite walls to the east in Yosemite? What was the Earth like in the past, and what will it be like in the future? Lectures, hands-on laboratories, in-class activities, and one field trip will help you see the Earth through the eyes of a geologist. Topics include plate tectonics, the cycling and formation of different types of rocks, and how geologists use rocks to understand Earth's history.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sperling, E. (PI)

EARTHSYS 41N: The Global Warming Paradox

Preference to freshman. Focus is on the complex climate challenges posed by the substantial benefits of energy consumption, including the critical tension between the enormous global demand for increased human well-being and the negative climate consequences of large-scale emissions of carbon dioxide. Topics include: Earth¿s energy balance; detection and attribution of climate change; the climate response to enhanced greenhouse forcing; impacts of climate change on natural and human systems; and proposed methods for curbing further climate change. Sources include peer-reviewed scientific papers, current research results, and portrayal of scientific findings by the mass media and social networks.
Terms: Aut, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Diffenbaugh, N. (PI)

EARTHSYS 46N: Exploring the Critical Interface between the Land and Monterey Bay: Elkhorn Slough (ESS 46N)

Preference to freshmen. Field trips to sites in the Elkhorn Slough, a small agriculturally impacted estuary that opens into Monterey Bay, a model ecosystem for understanding the complexity of estuaries, and one of California's last remaining coastal wetlands. Readings include Jane Caffrey's Changes in a California Estuary: A Profile of Elkhorn Slough. Basics of biogeochemistry, microbiology, oceanography, ecology, pollution, and environmental management.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Francis, C. (PI)

EARTHSYS 57Q: Climate Change from the Past to the Future (ESS 57Q)

Preference to sophomores. Numeric models to predict how climate responds to increase of greenhouse gases. Paleoclimate during times in Earth's history when greenhouse gas concentrations were elevated with respect to current concentrations. Predicted scenarios of climate models and how these models compare to known hyperthermal events in Earth history. Interactions and feedbacks among biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Topics include long- and short-term carbon cycle, coupled biogeochemical cycles affected by and controlling climate change, and how the biosphere responds to climate change. Possible remediation strategies.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 90: Introduction to Geochemistry (GS 90)

The chemistry of the solid earth and its atmosphere and oceans, emphasizing the processes that control the distribution of the elements in the earth over geological time and at present, and on the conceptual and analytical tools needed to explore these questions. The basics of geochemical thermodynamics and isotope geochemistry. The formation of the elements, crust, atmosphere and oceans, global geochemical cycles, and the interaction of geochemistry, biological evolution, and climate. Recommended: introductory chemistry.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Stebbins, J. (PI)

EARTHSYS 101: Energy and the Environment (ENERGY 101)

Energy use in modern society and the consequences of current and future energy use patterns. Case studies illustrate resource estimation, engineering analysis of energy systems, and options for managing carbon emissions. Focus is on energy definitions, use patterns, resource estimation, pollution. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 102: Fundamentals of Renewable Power (ENERGY 102)

Do you want a much better understanding of renewable power technologies? Did you know that wind and solar are the fastest growing forms of electricity generation? Are you interested in hearing about the most recent, and future, designs for green power? Do you want to understand what limits power extraction from renewable resources and how current designs could be improved? This course dives deep into these and related issues for wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, tidal and wave power technologies. We welcome all student, from non-majors to MBAs and grad students. If you are potentially interested in an energy or environmental related major, this course is particularly useful. Recommended: Math 21 or 42.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 104: The Water Course (GEOPHYS 70)

The Central Valley of California provides a third of the produce grown in the U.S., but has a desert climate, thus raising concerns about both food and water security. The pathway that water takes rainfall to the irrigation of fields (the water course) determines the quantity and quality of the available water. Working with various data sources (remote sensing, gauges, wells) allows us to model the water budget in the valley and explore the way in which recent droughts and increasing demand are impacting freshwater supplies.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 110: Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics (GEOPHYS 110)

Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics. Topics drawn from broad themes in: whole Earth geodynamics, geohazards, natural resources, and enviroment. In each case the focus is on how the interpretation of a variety of geophysical measurements (e.g., gravity, seismology, heat flow, electromagnetics, and remote sensing) can be used to provide fundamental insight into the behavior of the Earth. Prerequisite: CME 100 or MA TH 51, or co-registration in either.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EARTHSYS 111: Biology and Global Change (BIO 117, ESS 111)

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

EARTHSYS 113: Earthquakes and Volcanoes (GEOPHYS 90)

Is the "Big One" overdue in California? What kind of damage would that cause? What can we do to reduce the impact of such hazards in urban environments? Does "fracking" cause earthquakes and are we at risk? Is the United States vulnerable to a giant tsunami? The geologic record contains evidence of volcanic super eruptions throughout Earth's history. What causes these gigantic explosive eruptions, and can they be predicted in the future? This course will address these and related issues. For non-majors and potential Earth scientists. No prerequisites. More information at: https://stanford.box.com/s/zr8ar28efmuo5wtlj6gj2jbxle76r4lu
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Beroza, G. (PI)

EARTHSYS 117: Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands (EARTH 117, ESS 117)

Progression from volcanic processes through rock weathering and soil-ecosystem development to landscape evolution. The course starts with an investigation of volcanic processes, including the volcano structure, origin of magmas, physical-chemical factors of eruptions. Factors controlling rock weathering and soil development, including depth and nutrient levels impacting plant ecosystems, are explored next. Geomorphic processes of landscape evolution including erosion rates, tectonic/volcanic activity, and hillslope stability conclude the course. Methods for monitoring and predicting eruptions, defining spatial changes in landform, landform stability, soil production rates, and measuring biogeochemical processes are covered throughout the course. This course is restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

EARTHSYS 122: Evolution of Marine Ecosystems (BIO 119, GS 123, GS 223B)

Life originally evolved in the ocean. When, why, and how did the major transitions occur in the history of marine life? What triggered the rapid evolution and diversification of animals in the Cambrian, after more than 3.5 billion years of Earth's history? What caused Earth's major mass extinction events? How do ancient extinction events compare to current threats to marine ecosystems? How has the evolution of primary producers impacted animals, and how has animal evolution impacted primary producers? In this course, we will review the latest evidence regarding these major questions in the history of marine ecosystems. We will develop familiarity with the most common groups of marine animal fossils. We will also conduct original analyses of paleontological data, developing skills both in the framing and testing of scientific hypotheses and in data analysis and presentation.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Heim, N. (PI); Payne, J. (PI)

EARTHSYS 143: Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, ESS 143, ESS 243)

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Welander, P. (PI)

EARTHSYS 151: Biological Oceanography (EARTHSYS 251, ESS 151, ESS 251)

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (ESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and ESS 8 or equivalent.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

EARTHSYS 152: Marine Chemistry (EARTHSYS 252, ESS 152, ESS 252)

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (ESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Casciotti, K. (PI)

EARTHSYS 155: Science of Soils (ESS 155)

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Fendorf, S. (PI)

EARTHSYS 180: Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture (ESS 280)

Field-based training in ecologically sound agricultural practices at the Stanford Community Farm. Weekly lessons, field work, and group projects. Field trips to educational farms in the area. Topics include: soils, composting, irrigation techniques, IPM, basic plant anatomy and physiology, weeds, greenhouse management, and marketing.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Archie, P. (PI)

EARTHSYS 323: Stanford at Sea (BIOHOPK 182H, BIOHOPK 323H, ESS 323)

(Graduate students register for 323H.) Five weeks of marine science including oceanography, marine physiology, policy, maritime studies, conservation, and nautical science at Hopkins Marine Station, followed by five weeks at sea aboard a sailing research vessel in the Pacific Ocean. Shore component comprised of three multidisciplinary courses meeting daily and continuing aboard ship. Students develop an independent research project plan while ashore, and carry out the research at sea. In collaboration with the Sea Education Association of Woods Hole, MA. Only 6 units may count towards the Biology major.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 16 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

EE 21N: What is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology is an often used word and it means many things to different people. Scientists and Engineers have some notion of what nanotechnology is, societal perception may be entirely different. In this course, we start with the classic paper by Richard Feynman ("There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom"), which laid down the challenge to the nanotechnologists. Then we discuss two classic books that offer a glimpse of what nanotechnology is: Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology by Eric Drexler, and Prey by Michael Crichton. Drexler's thesis sparked the imagination of what nano machinery might do, whereas Crichton's popular novel channeled the public's attention to this subject by portraying a disastrous scenario of a technology gone astray. We will use the scientific knowledge to analyze the assumptions and predictions of these classic works. We will draw upon the latest research advances to illustrate the possibilities and impossibilities of nanotechnology.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Wong, H. (PI)

EE 60N: Man versus Nature: Coping with Disasters Using Space Technology (GEOPHYS 60N)

Preference to freshman. Natural hazards, earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, hurricanes, and fires, and how they affect people and society; great disasters such as asteroid impacts that periodically obliterate many species of life. Scientific issues, political and social consequences, costs of disaster mitigation, and how scientific knowledge affects policy. How spaceborne imaging technology makes it possible to respond quickly and mitigate consequences; how it is applied to natural disasters; and remote sensing data manipulation and analysis. GER:DB-EngrAppSci
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Zebker, H. (PI)

EE 65: Modern Physics for Engineers

This course introduces the core ideas of modern physics that enable applications ranging from solar energy and efficient lighting to the modern electronic and optical devices and nanotechnologies that sense, process, store, communicate and display all our information. Though the ideas have broad impact, the course is widely accessible to engineering and science students with only basic linear algebra and calculus through simple ordinary differential equations as mathematics background. Topics include the quantum mechanics of electrons and photons (Schrödinger's equation, atoms, electrons, energy levels and energy bands; absorption and emission of photons; quantum confinement in nanostructures), the statistical mechanics of particles (entropy, the Boltzmann factor, thermal distributions), the thermodynamics of light (thermal radiation, limits to light concentration, spontaneous and stimulated emission), and the physics of information (Maxwell¿s demon, reversibility, entropy and noise in physics and information theory). Pre-requisite: Physics 41. Pre- or co-requisite: Math 53 or CME 102.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Heinz, T. (PI)

EE 101A: Circuits I

Introduction to circuit modeling and analysis. Topics include creating the models of typical components in electronic circuits and simplifying non-linear models for restricted ranges of operation (small signal model); and using network theory to solve linear and non-linear circuits under static and dynamic operations. Prerequisite: ENGR40 or ENGR40M is useful but not strictly required.
Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lee, T. (PI)

EE 101B: Circuits II

Continuation of EE101A. Introduction to circuit design for modern electronic systems. Modeling and analysis of analog gain stages, frequency response, feedback. Filtering and analog¿to¿digital conversion. Fundamentals of circuit simulation. Prerequisites: EE101A, EE102A. Recommended: CME102.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EE 108: Digital System Design

Digital circuit, logic, and system design. Digital representation of information. CMOS logic circuits. Combinational logic design. Logic building blocks, idioms, and structured design. Sequential logic design and timing analysis. Clocks and synchronization. Finite state machines. Microcode control. Digital system design. Control and datapath partitioning. Lab. *In Autumn, enrollment preference is given to EE majors. Any EE majors who must enroll in Autumn are invited to contact the instructor. Formerly EE 108A.
Terms: Aut, Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

EE 142: Engineering Electromagnetics

Introduction to electromagnetism and Maxwell's equations in static and dynamic regimes. Electrostatics and magnetostatics: Gauss's, Coulomb's, Faraday's, Ampere's, Biot-Savart's laws. Electric and magnetic potentials. Boundary conditions. Electric and magnetic field energy. Electrodynamics: Wave equation; Electromagnetic waves; Phasor form of Maxwell's equations.nSolution of the wave equation in 1D free space: Wavelength, wave-vector, forward and backward propagating plane waves.Poynting's theorem. Propagation in lossy media, skin depth. Reflection and refraction at planar boundaries, total internal reflection. Solutions of wave equation for various 1D-3D problems: Electromagnetic resonators, waveguides periodic media, transmission lines. Formerly EE 141. Pre-requisites: Phys 43 or EE 42, CME 100, CME 102 (recommended)
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Fan, J. (PI); Phan, T. (TA)

EE 180: Digital Systems Architecture

The design of processor-based digital systems. Instruction sets, addressing modes, data types. Assembly language programming, low-level data structures, introduction to operating systems and compilers. Processor microarchitecture, microprogramming, pipelining. Memory systems and caches. Input/output, interrupts, buses and DMA. System design implementation alternatives, software/hardware tradeoffs. Labs involve the design of processor subsystems and processor-based embedded systems. Formerly EE 108B. Prerequisite: CS107 (required) and EE108 (recommended but not required).
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ENERGY 101: Energy and the Environment (EARTHSYS 101)

Energy use in modern society and the consequences of current and future energy use patterns. Case studies illustrate resource estimation, engineering analysis of energy systems, and options for managing carbon emissions. Focus is on energy definitions, use patterns, resource estimation, pollution. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ENERGY 102: Fundamentals of Renewable Power (EARTHSYS 102)

Do you want a much better understanding of renewable power technologies? Did you know that wind and solar are the fastest growing forms of electricity generation? Are you interested in hearing about the most recent, and future, designs for green power? Do you want to understand what limits power extraction from renewable resources and how current designs could be improved? This course dives deep into these and related issues for wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, tidal and wave power technologies. We welcome all student, from non-majors to MBAs and grad students. If you are potentially interested in an energy or environmental related major, this course is particularly useful. Recommended: Math 21 or 42.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ENERGY 120: Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering (ENGR 120)

Lectures, problems, field trip. Engineering topics in petroleum recovery; origin, discovery, and development of oil and gas. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of oil and natural gas. Material balance equations and reserve estimates using volumetric calculations. Gas laws. Single phase and multiphase flow through porous media.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ENGR 15: Dynamics

The application of Newton's Laws to solve 2-D and 3-D static and dynamic problems, particle and rigid body dynamics, freebody diagrams, and equations of motion, with application to mechanical, biomechanical, and aerospace systems. Computer numerical solution and dynamic response. Prerequisites: Calculus (differentiation and integration) such as MATH 41; and ENGR 14 (statics and strength) or a mechanics course in physics such as PHYSICS 41.
Terms: Win, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Lew, A. (PI); Rock, S. (PI)

ENGR 20: Introduction to Chemical Engineering (CHEMENG 20)

Overview of chemical engineering through discussion and engineering analysis of physical and chemical processes. Topics: overall staged separations, material and energy balances, concepts of rate processes, energy and mass transport, and kinetics of chemical reactions. Applications of these concepts to areas of current technological importance: biotechnology, energy, production of chemicals, materials processing, and purification. Prerequisite: CHEM 31.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ENGR 40: Introductory Electronics

Not offered. Students wishing to complete the equivalent of ENGR 40 should enroll in both ENGR 40A and ENGR 40B.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ENGR 40A: Introductory Electronics

First portion of the former ENGR 40, for students not pursuing degree in Electrical Engineering. Instruction to be completed in the first seven weeks of the quarter. Students wishing to complete the equivalent of ENGR 40 should enroll in both ENGR 40A and ENGR 40B. Overview of electronic circuits and applications. Electrical quantities and their measurement, including operation of the oscilloscope. Basic models of electronic components including resistors, capacitors, inductors, and the operational amplifier. Lab. Lab assignments. Enrollment limited to 300.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ENGR 40M: An Intro to Making: What is EE

Is a hands-on class where students learn to make stuff. Through the process of building, you are introduced to the basic areas of EE. Students build a "useless box" and learn about circuits, feedback, and programming hardware, a light display for your desk and bike and learn about coding, transforms, and LEDs, a solar charger and an EKG machine and learn about power, noise, feedback, more circuits, and safety. And you get to keep the toys you build. Prerequisite: CS 106A.
Terms: Aut, Spr, Sum | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ENGR 50: Introduction to Materials Science, Nanotechnology Emphasis

The structure, bonding, and atomic arrangements in materials leading to their properties and applications. Topics include electronic and mechanical behavior, emphasizing nanotechnology, solid state devices, and advanced structural and composite materials.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ENGR 50E: Introduction to Materials Science, Energy Emphasis

Materials structure, bonding and atomic arrangements leading to their properties and applications. Topics include electronic, thermal and mechanical behavior; emphasizing energy related materials and challenges.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ENGR 50M: Introduction to Materials Science, Biomaterials Emphasis

Topics include: the relationship between atomic structure and macroscopic properties of man-made and natural materials; mechanical and thermodynamic behavior of surgical implants including alloys, ceramics, and polymers; and materials selection for biotechnology applications such as contact lenses, artificial joints, and cardiovascular stents. No prerequisite.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Heilshorn, S. (PI)

ENGR 120: Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering (ENERGY 120)

Lectures, problems, field trip. Engineering topics in petroleum recovery; origin, discovery, and development of oil and gas. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of oil and natural gas. Material balance equations and reserve estimates using volumetric calculations. Gas laws. Single phase and multiphase flow through porous media.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 8: The Oceans: An Introduction to the Marine Environment (EARTHSYS 8)

The course will provide a basic understanding of how the ocean functions as a suite of interconnected ecosystems, both naturally and under the influence of human activities. Emphasis is on the interactions between the physical and chemical environment and the dominant organisms of each ecosystem. The types of ecosystems discussed include coral reefs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, coastal upwelling systems, blue-water oceans, estuaries, and near-shore dead zones. Lectures, multimedia presentations, group activities, and tide-pooling day trip.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 46N: Exploring the Critical Interface between the Land and Monterey Bay: Elkhorn Slough (EARTHSYS 46N)

Preference to freshmen. Field trips to sites in the Elkhorn Slough, a small agriculturally impacted estuary that opens into Monterey Bay, a model ecosystem for understanding the complexity of estuaries, and one of California's last remaining coastal wetlands. Readings include Jane Caffrey's Changes in a California Estuary: A Profile of Elkhorn Slough. Basics of biogeochemistry, microbiology, oceanography, ecology, pollution, and environmental management.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Francis, C. (PI)

ESS 57Q: Climate Change from the Past to the Future (EARTHSYS 57Q)

Preference to sophomores. Numeric models to predict how climate responds to increase of greenhouse gases. Paleoclimate during times in Earth's history when greenhouse gas concentrations were elevated with respect to current concentrations. Predicted scenarios of climate models and how these models compare to known hyperthermal events in Earth history. Interactions and feedbacks among biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. Topics include long- and short-term carbon cycle, coupled biogeochemical cycles affected by and controlling climate change, and how the biosphere responds to climate change. Possible remediation strategies.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

ESS 111: Biology and Global Change (BIO 117, EARTHSYS 111)

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

ESS 117: Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands (EARTH 117, EARTHSYS 117)

Progression from volcanic processes through rock weathering and soil-ecosystem development to landscape evolution. The course starts with an investigation of volcanic processes, including the volcano structure, origin of magmas, physical-chemical factors of eruptions. Factors controlling rock weathering and soil development, including depth and nutrient levels impacting plant ecosystems, are explored next. Geomorphic processes of landscape evolution including erosion rates, tectonic/volcanic activity, and hillslope stability conclude the course. Methods for monitoring and predicting eruptions, defining spatial changes in landform, landform stability, soil production rates, and measuring biogeochemical processes are covered throughout the course. This course is restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

ESS 143: Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, EARTHSYS 143, ESS 243)

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Welander, P. (PI)

ESS 151: Biological Oceanography (EARTHSYS 151, EARTHSYS 251, ESS 251)

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (ESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and ESS 8 or equivalent.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

ESS 152: Marine Chemistry (EARTHSYS 152, EARTHSYS 252, ESS 252)

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (ESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Casciotti, K. (PI)

ESS 155: Science of Soils (EARTHSYS 155)

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Fendorf, S. (PI)

GEOPHYS 20N: Predicting Volcanic Eruptions

The physics and chemistry of volcanic processes and modern methods of volcano monitoring. Volcanoes as manifestations of the Earth's internal energy and hazards to society. How earth scientists better forecast eruptive activity by monitoring seismic activity, bulging of the ground surface, and the discharge of volcanic gases, and by studying deposits from past eruptions. Focus is on the interface between scientists and policy makers and the challenges of decision making with incomplete information. Field trip to Mt. St. Helens, site of the 1980 eruption.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Segall, P. (PI)

GEOPHYS 54N: The Space Mission to Europa

Jupiter's icy moon Europa is a leading candidate in the search for life in our solar system outside of Earth. NASA's upcoming Europa Clipper mission would investigate the habitability of the moon using a suite of nine geophysical instruments. In this course, we will use the mission as a central text around which to explore the intersection of science, engineering, management, economics, culture, and politics involved in any modern big science enterprise.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Schroeder, D. (PI)

GEOPHYS 60N: Man versus Nature: Coping with Disasters Using Space Technology (EE 60N)

Preference to freshman. Natural hazards, earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, hurricanes, and fires, and how they affect people and society; great disasters such as asteroid impacts that periodically obliterate many species of life. Scientific issues, political and social consequences, costs of disaster mitigation, and how scientific knowledge affects policy. How spaceborne imaging technology makes it possible to respond quickly and mitigate consequences; how it is applied to natural disasters; and remote sensing data manipulation and analysis. GER:DB-EngrAppSci
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Zebker, H. (PI)

GEOPHYS 70: The Water Course (EARTHSYS 104)

The Central Valley of California provides a third of the produce grown in the U.S., but has a desert climate, thus raising concerns about both food and water security. The pathway that water takes rainfall to the irrigation of fields (the water course) determines the quantity and quality of the available water. Working with various data sources (remote sensing, gauges, wells) allows us to model the water budget in the valley and explore the way in which recent droughts and increasing demand are impacting freshwater supplies.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GEOPHYS 90: Earthquakes and Volcanoes (EARTHSYS 113)

Is the "Big One" overdue in California? What kind of damage would that cause? What can we do to reduce the impact of such hazards in urban environments? Does "fracking" cause earthquakes and are we at risk? Is the United States vulnerable to a giant tsunami? The geologic record contains evidence of volcanic super eruptions throughout Earth's history. What causes these gigantic explosive eruptions, and can they be predicted in the future? This course will address these and related issues. For non-majors and potential Earth scientists. No prerequisites. More information at: https://stanford.box.com/s/zr8ar28efmuo5wtlj6gj2jbxle76r4lu
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Beroza, G. (PI)

GEOPHYS 110: Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics (EARTHSYS 110)

Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics. Topics drawn from broad themes in: whole Earth geodynamics, geohazards, natural resources, and enviroment. In each case the focus is on how the interpretation of a variety of geophysical measurements (e.g., gravity, seismology, heat flow, electromagnetics, and remote sensing) can be used to provide fundamental insight into the behavior of the Earth. Prerequisite: CME 100 or MA TH 51, or co-registration in either.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GEOPHYS 120: Ice, Water, Fire (GEOPHYS 220)

Introductory application of continuum mechanics to ice sheets and glaciers, water waves and tsunamis, and volcanoes. Emphasis on physical processes and mathematical description using balance of mass and momentum, combined with constitutive equations for fluids and solids. Designed for undergraduates with no prior geophysics background; also appropriate for beginning graduate students. Prerequisites: CME 100 or MATH 52 and PHYSICS 41 (or equivalent).
Terms: given next year | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GEOPHYS 130: Introductory Seismology

Introduction to seismology including: elasticity and the wave equation, P, S, and surface waves, dispersion, ray theory, reflection and transmission of seismic waves, seismic imaging, large-scale Earth structure, earthquake location, earthquake statistics and forecasting, magnitude scales, seismic source theory.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GEOPHYS 150: Geodynamics: Our Dynamic Earth (GEOPHYS 250)

What processes determine the large-scale structure and motion of Earth? How does convection deep within Earth drive plate tectonics and the formation of ocean basins and mountain ranges? Drawing from fundamental principles of mechanics and thermodynamics, we develop mathematical theories for heat flow, mantle convection, and the bending and breaking of Earth's brittle crust. Scaling arguments and dimensional analysis provide intuition that is refined through analytical and numerical solution (in MATLAB) of the governing equations and validated through comparison with observations. Prerequisites: differential equations (CME 104 or MATH 53); mechanics and thermodynamics (PHYSICS 41 and 45); prior programming experience (CME 192 or CS 106A) is recommended.
Terms: offered occasionally | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GEOPHYS 160: D^3: Disasters, Decisions, Development

This class connects the science behind natural disasters with the real-world constraints of disaster management and development. In each iteration of this class we will focus on a specific, disaster-prone location as case study. By collaborating with local stakeholders we will explore how science and engineering can make a make a difference in reducing disaster risk in the future. Offered every other year.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3-5 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

GEOPHYS 183: Reflection Seismology Interpretation (GEOPHYS 223, GS 223)

The structural and stratigraphic interpretation of seismic reflection data, emphasizing hydrocarbon traps in two and three dimensions on industry data, including workstation-based interpretation. Lectures only, 1 unit. Prerequisite: 222, or consent of instructor. (Geophys 183 must be taken for a minimum of 3 units to be eligible for Ways credit).
Terms: Spr | Units: 1-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Klemperer, S. (PI)

GEOPHYS 184: Journey to the Center of the Earth (GEOPHYS 274, GS 107, GS 207)

The interconnected set of dynamic systems that make up the Earth. Focus is on fundamental geophysical observations of the Earth and the laboratory experiments to understand and interpret them. What earthquakes, volcanoes, gravity, magnetic fields, and rocks reveal about the Earth's formation and evolution.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GEOPHYS 190: Near-Surface Geophysics

Introduction to geophysical methods that can be used for imaging and characterizing groundwater systems; modeling and interpretation of the data. This Cardinal Class will be structured around solving a problem currently faced by a community in the Central Valley of California: How to select a site that can be used to recharge the groundwater? Where is there sand and gravel? clay? Where will the water go? We will review data from the area and develop a plan for the acquisition of geophysical data to image sediment texture in the subsurface. Data will be acquired during a weekend field trip to the community. Each week includes two hours of lectures; plus one 1.5-hour lab that involves acquisition of field data, or computer modeling/analysis of datanPre-requisite: CME 100 or Math 51, or co-registration in either.n(Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center)
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GS 1: Introduction to Geology (EARTHSYS 11)

Why are earthquakes, volcanoes, and natural resources located at specific spots on the Earth surface? Why are there rolling hills to the west behind Stanford, and soaring granite walls to the east in Yosemite? What was the Earth like in the past, and what will it be like in the future? Lectures, hands-on laboratories, in-class activities, and one field trip will help you see the Earth through the eyes of a geologist. Topics include plate tectonics, the cycling and formation of different types of rocks, and how geologists use rocks to understand Earth's history.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sperling, E. (PI)

GS 4: Coevolution of Earth and Life (EARTHSYS 4)

Earth is the only planet in the universe currently known to harbor life. When and how did Earth become inhabited? How have biological activities altered the planet? How have environmental changes affected the evolution of life? Are we living in a sixth mass extinction? In this course, we will develop and use the tools of geology, paleontology, geochemistry, and modeling that allow us to reconstruct Earth¿s 4.5 billion year history and to reconstruct the interactions between life and its host planet over the past 4 billion years. We will also ask what this long history can tell us about life¿s likely future on Earth. We will also use One half-day field trip.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Payne, J. (PI)

GS 40N: Diamonds

Preference to freshmen. Topics include the history of diamonds as gemstones, prospecting and mining, and their often tragic politics. How diamond samples provide clues for geologists to understand the Earth's deep interior and the origins of the solar system. Diamond's unique materials properties and efforts in synthesizing diamonds.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Mao, W. (PI)

GS 42: Landscapes and Tectonics of the San Francisco Bay Area (EARTH 42)

Active faulting and erosion in the Bay Area, and its effects upon landscapes. Earth science concepts and skills through investigation of the valley, mountain, and coastal areas around Stanford. Faulting associated with the San Andreas Fault, coastal processes along the San Mateo coast, uplift of the mountains by plate tectonic processes, and landsliding in urban and mountainous areas. Field excursions; student projects.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Hilley, G. (PI)

GS 55Q: The California Gold Rush: Geologic Background and Environmental Impact

Preference to sophomores. Topics include: geologic processes that led to the concentration of gold in the river gravels and rocks of the Mother Lode region of California; and environmental impact of the Gold Rush due to population increase, mining operations, and high concentrations of arsenic and mercury in sediments from hard rock mining and milling operations. Recommended: introductory geology.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA, Writing 2 | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GS 90: Introduction to Geochemistry (EARTHSYS 90)

The chemistry of the solid earth and its atmosphere and oceans, emphasizing the processes that control the distribution of the elements in the earth over geological time and at present, and on the conceptual and analytical tools needed to explore these questions. The basics of geochemical thermodynamics and isotope geochemistry. The formation of the elements, crust, atmosphere and oceans, global geochemical cycles, and the interaction of geochemistry, biological evolution, and climate. Recommended: introductory chemistry.
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Stebbins, J. (PI)

GS 102: Earth Materials: Introduction to Mineralogy

The minerals and materials that comprise the earth and their uses in modern society. How to identify, classify, and interpret rock-forming minerals. Emphasis is on information provided by common minerals about the nature of the Earth's interior and processes such as magmatism and metamorphism that operate there, as well as the major processes of weathering and erosion that link plate tectonics to earth cycles. Required lab section. Prerequisite: introductory geology course. Recommended: introductory chemistry.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Brown, G. (PI); Mao, W. (PI)

GS 105: Introduction to Field Methods

Two-week, field-based course in the White Mountains of eastern California. Introduction to the techniques for geologic mapping and geologic investigation in the field: systematic observations and data collection for lithologic columns and structural cross-sections. Interpretation of field relationships and data to determine the stratigraphic and deformational history of the region. Prerequisite: GS 1, recommended: GS 102.
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Grove, M. (PI)

GS 107: Journey to the Center of the Earth (GEOPHYS 184, GEOPHYS 274, GS 207)

The interconnected set of dynamic systems that make up the Earth. Focus is on fundamental geophysical observations of the Earth and the laboratory experiments to understand and interpret them. What earthquakes, volcanoes, gravity, magnetic fields, and rocks reveal about the Earth's formation and evolution.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GS 111: Fundamentals of Structural Geology (CEE 195)

Techniques for mapping using GPS and differential geometry to characterize structures; dimensional analysis and scaling relations; kinematics of deformation and flow; measurement and analysis of stress; elastic deformation and properties of rock; brittle deformation including fracture and faulting; linear viscous flow including folding and magma dynamics; model development and methodology. Models of tectonic processes are constructed and solutions visualized using MATLAB. Prerequisites: GS 1, MATH 51
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

GS 123: Evolution of Marine Ecosystems (BIO 119, EARTHSYS 122, GS 223B)

Life originally evolved in the ocean. When, why, and how did the major transitions occur in the history of marine life? What triggered the rapid evolution and diversification of animals in the Cambrian, after more than 3.5 billion years of Earth's history? What caused Earth's major mass extinction events? How do ancient extinction events compare to current threats to marine ecosystems? How has the evolution of primary producers impacted animals, and how has animal evolution impacted primary producers? In this course, we will review the latest evidence regarding these major questions in the history of marine ecosystems. We will develop familiarity with the most common groups of marine animal fossils. We will also conduct original analyses of paleontological data, developing skills both in the framing and testing of scientific hypotheses and in data analysis and presentation.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Heim, N. (PI); Payne, J. (PI)

GS 130: Soil Physics and Hydrology

The occurrence, distribution, circulation, and reaction of water at the surface and within the near surface. Topics: precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration and vadose zone, groundwater, surface water and streamflow generation, and water balance estimates. Current and classic theory in soil physics and hydrology. Urban, rangeland, and forested environments.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

GS 131: Hydrologically-Driven Landscape Evolution

Materials of the Earth and hydrologically driven landscape processes. Topics: hillslope hydrology, weathering of rocks and soils, erosion, flow failures, mass wasting, and conceptual models of landscape evolution. Current and classic theory in geomorphology.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

HUMBIO 2A: Genetics, Evolution, and Ecology

Introduction to the principles of classical and modern genetics, evolutionary theory, and population biology. Topics: micro- and macro-evolution, population and molecular genetics, biodiversity, and ecology, emphasizing the genetics and ecology of the evolutionary process and applications to human populations. HUMBIO 2A and HUMBIO 2B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.
Terms: Aut | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

HUMBIO 2B: Culture, Evolution, and Society

Introduction to the evolutionary study of human diversity. Hominid evolution, the origins of social complexity, social theory, and the emergence of the modern world system, emphasizing the concept of culture and its influence on human differences. HUMBIO 2B, with HUMBIO 3B and HUMBIO 4B, satisfies the Writing in the Major (WIM) requirement for students in Human Biology. HUMBIO 2A and HUMBIO 2B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.
Terms: Aut | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-SI, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

HUMBIO 3A: Cell and Developmental Biology

The principles of the biology of cells: principles of human developmental biology, biochemistry of energetics and metabolism, the nature of membranes and organelles, hormone action and signal transduction in normal and diseased states (diabetes, cancer, autoimmune diseases), drug discovery, immunology, and drug addiction. HUMBIO 3A and HUMBIO 3B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade. Prerequisite: college chemistry or completion of the HumBio Core on-line chemistry lecture series during the fall quarter.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

HUMBIO 4A: The Human Organism

Integrative Physiology: Neurobiology, endocrinology, and organ system function, control, and regulation. HUMBIO 4A and HUMBIO 4B are designed to be taken concurrently and exams for both sides may include material from joint module lectures. Concurrent enrollment is strongly encouraged and is necessary for majors in order to meet declaration deadlines. Please note Human Biology majors are required to take the Human Biology Core Courses for a letter grade.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

HUMBIO 91Q: Neuroethology: The Neural Control of Behavior (BIO 32Q)

Preference to sophomores. Animal behavior offers insights about evolutionary adaptations and this seminar will discuss the origins of the study of animal behavior and its development to the present. How does the nervous system control behavior and how is it changed by behavior? We will analyze and discuss original research papers about the neural basis of behavior. The use and misuse of parallels between animal and human behavior. Possible field trip to observe animals in their natural habitat.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Fernald, R. (PI)

HUMBIO 113: The Human-Plant Connection

The intertwined biologies of humans and plants, particularly the ways in which people and plants have imposed selection pressures and ecological change on one another. Topics include evolution and basic plant structure; plant domestication; effects of agriculture on human health and physiology; plants in traditional and contemporary diets; and human influences on plant biology through genetic manipulation and environmental change. Class meetings center on journal articles. Final project includes written and multimedia presentations. Prerequisites: Human Biology Core or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Preston, K. (PI)

HUMBIO 130: Human Nutrition (CHPR 130)

The study of food, and the nutrients and substances therein. Their action, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease. Emphasis is on the biological, chemical, and physiological processes by which humans ingest, digest, absorb, transport, utilize, and excrete food. Dietary composition and individual choices are discussed in relationship to the food supply, and to population and cultural, race, ethnic, religious, and social economic diversity. The relationships between nutrition and disease; ethnic diets; vegetarianism; nutritional deficiencies; nutritional supplementation; phytochemicals. HUMBIO students must enroll in HUMBIO 130. CHPR master's students must enroll for a letter grade. Undergraduate prerequisite: Human Biology Core or equivalent or consent of instructor.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gardner, C. (PI)

HUMBIO 145L: The Biology and Evolution of Language (ANTHRO 171, ANTHRO 271)

Lecture course surveying the biology, linguistic functions, and evolution of the organs of speech and speech centers in the brain, language in animals and humans, the evolution of language itself, and the roles of innateness vs. culture in language. Suitable both for general education and as preparation for further studies in anthropology, biology, linguistics, medicine, psychology, and speech & language therapy. Anthropology concentration: CS, EE. No prerequisites.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4-5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

HUMBIO 153: Parasites and Pestilence: Infectious Public Health Challenges

We will learn about parasitic and other pestilence of public health importance and how they affect billions of people worldwide. We examine the pathogenesis, clinical syndromes, complex life cycles, and the interplay among environment, vectors, hosts, and reservoirs; we explore historical contexts as it informs current interventions and programming against disease. Public health policy initiatives aimed at halting disease transmission are viewed critically through the lens of researchers, public health level initiatives, popular media (TV and movies) and individual patients with these diseases. There will be guest visitors who have experienced these diseases and we will hear from several researchers and experts working on the challenges of controlling, eliminating or even eradicating these diseases. We will become familiar with the targeted diseases of the World Health Organization tropical disease research list, including river blindness, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, mycobacterial disease (tuberculosis and leprosy), malaria, toxoplasmosis, dracunculiasis, and intestinal helminthes. There will be a lab section for "hands on" learning and viewing of parasites. Interactive sessions will involve teaching each other about these biological forces of nature that invade humans. Prerequisite: Human Biology core or equivalent, or consent of instructor.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

HUMBIO 157: The Biology of Stem Cells

The role of stem cells in human development and potential for treating disease. Guest lectures by biologists, ethicists, and legal scholars. Prerequisites:HumBio 2A and HUMBIO 3A, or the equivalent in the BioCore in Biological Sciences.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

HUMBIO 158: The Human Genome and Disease (BIO 109A, BIOC 109A, BIOC 209A)

The variability of the human genome and the role of genomic information in research, drug discovery, and human health. Concepts and interpretations of genomic markers in medical research and real life applications. Human genomes in diverse populations. Original contributions from thought leaders in academia and industry and interaction between students and guest lecturers. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

HUMBIO 159: Genes and Environment in Disease Causation: Implications for Medicine and Public Health (HRP 238)

The historical, contemporary, and future research and practice among genetics, epidemiology, clinical medicine, and public health as a source of insight for medicine and public health. Genetic and environmental contributions to multifactorial diseases; multidisciplinary approach to enhancing detection and diagnosis. The impact of the Human Genome Project on analysis of cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and cancer. Ethical and social issues in the use of genetic information. Prerequisite: basic course in genetics; for undergraduates, Human Biology core or equivalent or consent of instructor. This course must be taken for a minimum of 3 units and a letter grade to be eligible for Ways credit.
Terms: Win | Units: 2-3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Medical Option (Med-Ltr-CR/NC)
Instructors: ; Popat, R. (PI)

HUMBIO 160: Human Behavioral Biology (BIO 150)

Multidisciplinary. How to approach complex normal and abnormal behaviors through biology. How to integrate disciplines including sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Sapolsky, R. (PI)

HUMBIO 180: Human Skeletal Anatomy (ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 174, BIO 274)

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Klein, R. (PI)

LINGUIST 105: Phonetics (LINGUIST 205A)

Phonetics is the systematic study of speech. In this class, we will learn about the physical gestures and timing involved in the articulation of spoken language and about the resulting acoustic signal that is decoded into linguistic units by the human auditory system. The class is structured into two parts: A practical lab component, and a class component. This course highlights both the complexity of the physical nature of producing spoken language, and the highly variable acoustic signal that is interpreted by listeners as language. By the end of this course, you should: (1) Understand the process of preparing an utterance to articulating it; (2) Understand the basic acoustic properties of speech; (3) Provide detailed phonetic transcriptions of speech; (4) Produce and understand the gestures involved in nearly all of the world's speech sounds, and (5) Understand the ways this knowledge can be used to advance our understanding of spoken language understanding by humans and machines.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATH 80Q: Capillary Surfaces: Explored and Unexplored Territory

Preference to sophomores. Capillary surfaces: the interfaces between fluids that are adjacent to each other and do not mix. Recently discovered phenomena, predicted mathematically and subsequently confirmed by experiments, some done in space shuttles. Interested students may participate in ongoing investigations with affinity between mathematics and physics.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Finn, R. (PI)

MATSCI 83N: Great Inventions That Matter

This introductory seminar starts by illuminating on the general aspects of creativity, invention, and patenting in engineering and medicine, and how Stanford University is one of the world's foremost engines of innovation. We then take a deep dive into some great technological inventions which are still playing an essential role in our everyday lives, such as fiber amplifier, digital compass, computer memory, HIV detector, personal genome machine, cancer cell sorting, brain imaging, and mind reading. The stories and underlying materials and technologies behind each invention, including a few examples by Stanford faculty and student inventors, are highlighted and discussed. A special lecture focuses on the public policy on intellectual properties (IP) and the resources at Stanford Office of Technology Licensing (OTL). Each student will have an opportunity to present on a great invention from Stanford (or elsewhere), or to write a (mock) patent disclosure of his/her own ideas.
Terms: alternate years, given next year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

MATSCI 142: Quantum Mechanics of Nanoscale Materials

Introduction to quantum mechanics and its application to the properties of materials. No prior background beyond a working knowledge of calculus and high school physics is presumed. Topics include: The Schrodinger equation and applications to understanding of the properties of quantum dots, semiconductor heterostructures, nanowires, and bulk solids. Tunneling processes and applications to nanoscale devices; the scanning tunneling microscope, and quantum cascade lasers. Simple models for the electronic properties and band structure of materials including semiconductors, insulators and metals and applications to semiconductor devices. Time-dependent perturbation theory and interaction of light with materials with applications to laser technology. Recommended: ENGR 50 or equivalent introductory materials science course. (Formerly 157)
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lindenberg, A. (PI)

MATSCI 143: Materials Structure and Characterization

Students will study the theory and application of characterization techniques used to examine the structure of materials at the nanoscale. Students will learn to classify the structure of materials such as semiconductors, ceramics, metals, and nanotubes according to the principles of crystallography. Methods used widely in academic and industrial research, including X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, will be demonstrated along with their application to the analysis of nanostructures. Prerequisites: E-50 or equivalent introductory materials science course. (Formerly 153)
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Brock, R. (PI)

MATSCI 144: Thermodynamic Evaluation of Green Energy Technologies

Understand the thermodynamics and efficiency limits of modern green technologies such as carbon dioxide capture from air, fuel cells, batteries, and solar-thermal power. Recommended: ENGR 50 or equivalent introductory materials science course. (Formerly 154)
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Chueh, W. (PI)

MATSCI 151: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties (MATSCI 251)

Primarily for students without a materials background. Mechanical properties and their dependence on microstructure in a range of engineering materials. Elementary deformation and fracture concepts, strengthening and toughening strategies in metals and ceramics. Topics: dislocation theory, mechanisms of hardening and toughening, fracture, fatigue, and high-temperature creep. Undergraduates register in 151 for 4 units; graduates register for 251 in 3 units.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MATSCI 152: Electronic Materials Engineering

Materials science and engineering for electronic device applications. Kinetic molecular theory and thermally activated processes; band structure; electrical conductivity of metals and semiconductors; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; elementary p-n junction theory; operating principles of light emitting diodes, solar cells, thermoelectric coolers, and transistors. Semiconductor processing including crystal growth, ion implantation, thin film deposition, etching, lithography, and nanomaterials synthesis.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dionne, J. (PI)

MATSCI 161: Energy Materials Laboratory (MATSCI 171)

A material that is currently being used in a cutting edge energy -related device such as a solar cell, battery or smart window will be thoroughly characterized throughout the quarter. Fabrication techniques could include electroplating, spin coating and thermal evaporation. There will be an emphasis in this course on characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, four-point probe measurements of conductivity, visible absorption and reflection spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry). Devices will be fabricated and their performance will be tested. In this Writing in the Major course, students will put together all of the data they collect during the quarter into a final paper. Undergraduates register for 161 for 4 units; graduates register for 171 for 3 units. Prerequisites: MATSCI 143 or equivalent course in materials characterization
Terms: Win | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; McGehee, M. (PI)

MATSCI 165: Nanoscale Materials Physics Computation Laboratory (MATSCI 175)

Computational exploration of fundamental topics in materials science using Java-based computation and visualization tools. Emphasis is on the atomic-scale origins of macroscopic materials phenomena. Simulation methods include molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo with applications in thermodynamics, kinetics, and topics in statistical mechanics. Undergraduates register for 165 for 4 units; graduates register for 175 for 3 units. Prerequisites: Undergraduate physics and MATSCI 144 or equivalent coursework in thermodynamics. MATSCI 145 recommended.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Reed, E. (PI)

MATSCI 190: Organic and Biological Materials (MATSCI 210)

Unique physical and chemical properties of organic materials and their uses. The relationship between structure and physical properties, and techniques to determine chemical structure and molecular ordering. Examples include liquid crystals, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels, and biopolymers such as lipids, protein, and DNA. Prerequisite: Thermodynamics and ENGR 50 or equivalent. Undergraduates register for 190 for 4 units; graduates register for 210 for 3 units.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Appel, E. (PI)

MED 50N: Translational Research: Turning Science into Medicine

Investigates how scientific research informs how physicians take care of patients and how clinical research informs how scientific experiments are conducted. Topics include how these two processes have improved health and have resulted in innovation and scientic progress; specific human disease areas in allergy and immunology that affect all ages of patients globally, including food allergy; scientific concepts of research that helped in discovery of novel diagnostics and treatment of disease; ethical roles of physicians and scientists in conducting translational research in human disease.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

MED 71N: Hormones in a Performance-Enhanced Society

(Formerly 117Q) Prefersnce to freshmen. Explores how the availability of hormone therapy has affected various aspects of daily lives. Topics include the controversies concerning menopause and its treatment; use of hormones in athletics; cosmetic use of hormones to enhance growth, strength, and libido; use of hormones as anti-aging drugs; and how the hormone system has influenced our notions of gender. Includes the biochemistry and physiology of the human endocrine system; how hormones influence behavior, and how to read a scientific paper.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hoffman, A. (PI)

MED 73N: Scientific Method and Bias

Offers an introduction to the scientific method and common biases in science. Examines theoretical considerations and practical examples where biases have led to erroneous conclusions, as well as scientific practices that can help identify, correct or prevent such biases. Additionally focuses on appropriate methods to interweave inductive and deductive approaches. Topics covered include: Popper¿s falsification and Kuhn¿s paradigm shift, revolution vs. evolution; determinism and uncertainty; probability, hypothesis testing, and Bayesian approaches; agnostic testing and big data; team science; peer review; replication; correlation and causation; bias in design, analysis, reporting and sponsorship of research; bias in the public perception of science, mass media and research; and bias in human history and everyday life. Provides students an understanding of how scientific knowledge has been and will be generated; the causes of bias in experimental design and in analytical approaches; and the interactions between deductive and inductive approaches in the generation of knowledge.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ioannidis, J. (PI)

MUSIC 192A: Foundations of Sound-Recording Technology

For upper division undergraduates and graduate students; preference given to Music majors with MST specialization. Topics: elementary electronics; the physics of sound transduction and microphone operation, selection, and placement; mixing consoles; connectors and device interconnection; grounding and shielding; principles of analog magnetic recording; operation maintenance of recording equipment; and principles of recording engineering. Enrollment limited. Prerequisites: MUSIC 150, algebra, physics basics, and consent of instructor.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kadis, J. (PI)

NENS 67N: Intracellular Trafficking and Neurodegeneration

Preference to freshmen. Cell structures and functions, the intracellular trafficking system that maintains exchanges of materials and information inside cells, and clinical features and pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases. Techniques for examining cellular and subcellular structures, especially cytoskeletons; functional insights generated from structural explorations. Prerequisite: high school biology.
Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Yang, Y. (PI)

OSPAUSTL 10: Coral Reef Ecosystems

Key organisms and processes, and the complexity of coral reef ecosystems. Students explore the Great Barrier Reef from the southern end which demonstrates the physical factors that limit coral reefs, to the northern reef systems which demonstrate key aspects of these high biodiversity ecosystems. Human-related changes. Emphasis is on research experiences and development of analytical skills. Two units only counted for the Biology major.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Arrigo, K. (PI)

OSPBER 40M: An Intro to Making: What is EE

Is a hands-on class where students learn to make stuff. Through the process of building, you are introduced to the basic areas of EE. Students build a "useless box" and learn about circuits, feedback, and programming hardware, a light display for your desk and bike and learn about coding, transforms, and LEDs, a solar charger and an EKG machine and learn about power, noise, feedback, more circuits, and safety. And you get to keep the toys you build. Prerequisite: CS 106A.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

OSPBER 50M: Introductory Science of Materials

Topics include: the relationship between atomic structure and macroscopic properties of man-made and natural materials; mechanical and thermodynamic behavior of surgical implants including alloys, ceramics, and polymers; and materials selection for biotechnology applications such as contact lenses, artificial joints, and cardiovascular stents. No prerequisite.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Heilshorn, S. (GP)

OSPFLOR 50M: Introductory Science of Materials

Topics include: the relationship between atomic structure and macroscopic properties of man-made and natural materials; mechanical and thermodynamic behavior of surgical implants including alloys, ceramics, and polymers; and materials selection for biotechnology applications such as contact lenses, artificial joints, and cardiovascular stents. No prerequisite.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Heilshorn, S. (GP)

OSPKYOTO 40M: An Intro to Making: What is EE

Is a hands-on class where students learn to make stuff. Through the process of building, you are introduced to the basic areas of EE. Students build a "useless box" and learn about circuits, feedback, and programming hardware, a light display for your desk and bike and learn about coding, transforms, and LEDs, a solar charger and an EKG machine and learn about power, noise, feedback, more circuits, and safety. And you get to keep the toys you build. Prerequisite: CS 106A.
Terms: Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dalmady, C. (PI)

OSPMADRD 27: Canarian Night Skies

Exploration of night skies in Spain's Canary Islands as well as those seen from California. Science for non-majors. Constellations, Solar System, Galactic and Extragalactic objects. Unique characteristics of the Canary Islands as astronomical reserve studied prior to field trip to the Canary Islands. Comparison of naked-eye Canarian and Californian night skies. Study and exploration of relevant astronomical instrumentation as well as representative celestial objects. Astrophotography-related activities. Enrollment limited.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

OSPPARIS 40M: An Intro to Making: What is EE

Is a hands-on class where students learn to make stuff. Through the process of building, you are introduced to the basic areas of EE. Students build a "useless box" and learn about circuits, feedback, and programming hardware, a light display for your desk and bike and learn about coding, transforms, and LEDs, a solar charger and an EKG machine and learn about power, noise, feedback, more circuits, and safety. And you get to keep the toys you build. Prerequisite: CS 106A.
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Horowitz, M. (PI)

OSPPARIS 50M: Introductory Science of Materials

Topics include: the relationship between atomic structure and macroscopic properties of man-made and natural materials; mechanical and thermodynamic behavior of surgical implants including alloys, ceramics, and polymers; and materials selection for biotechnology applications such as contact lenses, artificial joints, and cardiovascular stents. No prerequisite.
Terms: Aut, Win, Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Heilshorn, S. (GP)

OSPPARIS 53: Electricity, Magnetism and Optics with Laboratory

How are electric and magnetic fields generated by static and moving charges, and what are their applications? How is light related to electromagnetic waves? Represent and analyze electric and magnetic fields to understand electric circuits, motors, and generators. Wave nature of light to explain interference, diffraction, and polarization phenomena; geometric optics to understand how lenses and mirrors form images. Workings and limitations of optical systems such as the eye, corrective vision, cameras, telescopes, and microscopes. Discussions based on the language of algebra and trigonometry. An integrated version of Physics 23 and 24, targeted to premedical students who are studying abroad with integrated labs. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 21 or 21S.
Terms: Win | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Covert, M. (PI)

OSPSANTG 58: Living Chile: A Land of Extremes

Physical, ecological, and human geography of Chile. Perceptions of the Chilean territory and technologies of study. Flora, fauna, and human adaptations to regional environments. Guest lectures; field trips; workshops.
Terms: Spr, Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

OSPSANTG 60: Microbes and Society

The spread of microbial species is associated with the spread of human beings across the planet. Role of microbial species in shaping human history and society. What role did microbial diseases play in early human migration and the spread of humans across the continents? How can we explain the uneven spread of diseases such as flu or HIV? Which human behaviors enhance, and which thwart, the spread of microbial species?
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Bendavid, E. (PI)

PEDS 51N: How Discovery and Innovation Have Transformed Medicine

Topics include the science behind vaccines and why some refuse vaccination, how antibiotics are discovered and what can be done about increasing resistance to antibiotics, stem cells and their potential use, the role of genomics in modern medicine, development of drugs to treat HIV/AIDS, discovery of surfactant, personal responsibility in health and wellness and how technology relates to the "cost conundrum" of healthcare in the U.S. Appreciate important connections between science, discovery and human health and think critically about the potential impact of new discoveries on life and death, and their ethical and spiritual boundaries.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

PHIL 165: Philosophy of Physics: Philosophical Issues in Quantum Mechanics (PHIL 265)

Graduate students register for 265. NOTE: Phil 165/265 alternates topics yearly between "Philosophical Issues in Quantum Mechanics" and "Philosophical Problems of Space, Time and Motion". The course may be repeated with a different subject matter. nnIn Winter 2017-18, the subject is ""Philosophical Issues in QM"nnI. TOPICS: After introducing a simplified version of Dirac's 'bra-ket' vector space formalism for the quantum state (a.k.a. function), the first third of the term is a historical overview of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, wave-particle duality, the problem of quantum measurement, and the non-classical nature of spin. We survey the treatment of these issues within Bohr's doctrine of complementarity and the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of QM. We review Einstein's several arguments for the incompleteness of QM, leading up to the famous EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paper of 1935, the resulting issue of quantum entanglement as discussed by Einstein and Schrödinger, and the complexities of Bohr's response to EPR. In the second third of the term, we examine a well-known 'no go' theorem on EPR-type experimental set-ups stemming from Bell in the 1960s, according to which no hidden variables theory satisfying a certain locality condition (apparently assumed by EPR) can reproduce all the predictions of QM. In the last third, we survey current variations of, or interpretive options for, standard QM: Bohmian mechanics (a.k.a. pilot wave theory), spontaneous collapse theories, and Everett's relative-state interpretation with its many worlds/ many minds variants. We end by scrutinizing the recent decoherence program (a.k.a.localization induced by the scattering of environmental particles) that purports to explain the quantum-to-classical transition, i.e., the emergence of the world of classical physics and macroscopic objects and properties from quantum physics. We consider whether decoherence is justifiably viewed as solving the quantum measurement problem. nnII. PREREQUISITES: No detailed knowledge of quantum physics or advanced mathematics is presumed. Some background in philosophy, natural science or mathematics will be helpful. Students will benefit from possession of a modicum of mathematical maturity (roughly equivalent to a familiarity with elementary single-variable calculus or the metatheory of first-order logic).
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-Hum, WAY-A-II, WAY-SMA | Repeatable for credit | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Ryckman, T. (PI)

PHYSICS 14N: Quantum Information: Visions and Emerging Technologies

What sets quantum information apart from its classical counterpart is that it can be encoded non-locally, woven into correlations among multiple qubits in a phenomenon known as entanglement. We will discuss paradigms for harnessing entanglement to solve hitherto intractable computational problems or to push the precision of sensors to their fundamental quantum mechanical limits. We will also examine challenges that physicists and engineers are tackling in the laboratory today to enable the quantum technologies of the future.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Schleier-Smith, M. (PI)

PHYSICS 15: Stars and Planets in a Habitable Universe

Is the Earth unique in our galaxy? Students learn how stars and our galaxy have evolved and how this produces planets and the conditions suitable for life. Discussion of the motion of the night sky and how telescopes collect and analyze light. The life-cycle of stars from birth to death, and the end products of that life cycle -- from dense stellar corpses to supernova explosions. Course covers recent discoveries of extrasolar planets -- those orbiting stars beyond our sun -- and the ultimate quest for other Earths. Intended to be accessible to non-science majors, material is explored quantitatively with problem sets using basic algebra and numerical estimates. Sky observing exercise and observatory field trips supplement the classroom work.
Terms: Aut, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 16: The Origin and Development of the Cosmos

How did the present Universe come to be? The last few decades have seen remarkable progress in understanding this age-old question. Course will cover the history of the Universe from its earliest moments to the present day, and the physical laws that govern its evolution. The early Universe including inflation and the creation of matter and the elements. Recent discoveries in our understanding of the makeup of the cosmos, including dark matter and dark energy. Evolution of galaxies, clusters, and quasars, and the Universe as a whole. Implications of dark matter and dark energy for the future evolution of the cosmos. Intended to be accessible to non-science majors, material is explored quantitatively with problem sets using basic algebra and numerical estimates.
Terms: Win, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 17: Black Holes and Extreme Astrophysics

Black holes represent an extreme frontier of astrophysics. Course will explore the most fundamental and universal force -- gravity -- and how it controls the fate of astrophysical objects, leading in some cases to black holes. How we discover and determine the properties of black holes and their environment. How black holes and their event horizons are used to guide thinking about mysterious phenomena such as Hawking radiation, wormholes, and quantum entanglement. How black holes generate gravitational waves and powerful jets of particles and radiation. Other extreme objects such as pulsars. Relevant physics, including relativity, is introduced and treated at the algebraic level. No prior physics or calculus is required, although some deep thinking about space, time, and matter is important in working through assigned problems.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 18N: Frontiers in Theoretical Physics and Cosmology

Preference to freshmen. The course will begin with a description of the current standard models of gravitation, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. We will then focus on frontiers of current understanding including investigations of very early universe cosmology, string theory, and the physics of black holes.
Terms: Win | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Dimopoulos, S. (PI)

PHYSICS 19: How Things Work: An Introduction to Physics

Introduction to the principles of physics through familiar objects and phenomena, including airplanes, cameras, computers, engines, refrigerators, lightning, radio, microwave ovens, and fluorescent lights. Estimates of real quantities from simple calculations. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 21: Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat

How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe phenomena as diverse as spinning gymnasts, blood flow, and sound waves. Understanding many-particle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and performance limits of heat engines. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problem-solving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 21S: Mechanics, Fluids, and Heat with Laboratory

How are the motions of objects and the behavior of fluids and gases determined by the laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and understand why objects move as they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how Newton's three laws of motion are applied to solids, liquids, and gases to describe phenomena as diverse as spinning gymnasts, blood flow, and sound waves. Understanding many-particle systems requires connecting macroscopic properties (e.g., temperature and pressure) to microscopic dynamics (collisions of particles). Laws of thermodynamics provide understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and performance limits of heat engines. Everyday examples are analyzed using tools of algebra and trigonometry. Problem-solving skills are developed, including verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Labs are an integrated part of the summer course. Prerequisite: high school algebra and trigonometry; calculus not required.
Terms: Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Betre, K. (PI)

PHYSICS 23: Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics

How are electric and magnetic fields generated by static and moving charges, and what are their applications? How is light related to electromagnetic waves? Students learn to represent and analyze electric and magnetic fields to understand electric circuits, motors, and generators. The wave nature of light is used to explain interference, diffraction, and polarization phenomena. Geometric optics is employed to understand how lenses and mirrors form images. These descriptions are combined to understand the workings and limitations of optical systems such as the eye, corrective vision, cameras, telescopes, and microscopes. Discussions based on the language of algebra and trigonometry. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 21 or PHYSICS 21S.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Linde, A. (PI)

PHYSICS 23S: Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics with Laboratory

How are electric and magnetic fields generated by static and moving charges, and what are their applications? How is light related to electromagnetic waves? Students learn to represent and analyze electric and magnetic fields to understand electric circuits, motors, and generators. The wave nature of light is used to explain interference, diffraction, and polarization phenomena. Geometric optics is employed to understand how lenses and mirrors form images. These descriptions are combined to understand the workings and limitations of optical systems such as the eye, corrective vision, cameras, telescopes, and microscopes. Discussions based on the language of algebra and trigonometry. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Labs are an integrated part of the summer courses. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 21 or PHYSICS 21S.
Terms: Sum | Units: 5 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Wiser, T. (PI)

PHYSICS 25: Modern Physics

How do the discoveries since the dawn of the 20th century impact our understanding of 21st-century physics? This course introduces the foundations of modern physics: Einstein's theory of special relativity and quantum mechanics. Combining the language of physics with tools from algebra and trigonometry, students gain insights into how the universe works on both the smallest and largest scales. Topics may include atomic, molecular, and laser physics; semiconductors; elementary particles and the fundamental forces; nuclear physics (fission, fusion, and radioactivity); astrophysics and cosmology (the contents and evolution of the universe). Emphasis on applications of modern physics in everyday life, progress made in our understanding of the universe, and open questions that are the subject of active research. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and interactive group problem solving in discussion sections. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 23 or PHYSICS 23S.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Irwin, K. (PI)

PHYSICS 41: Mechanics

How are motions of objects in the physical world determined by laws of physics? Students learn to describe the motion of objects (kinematics) and then understand why motions have the form they do (dynamics). Emphasis on how the important physical principles in mechanics, such as conservation of momentum and energy for translational and rotational motion, follow from just three laws of nature: Newton's laws of motion. Distinction made between fundamental laws of nature and empirical rules that are useful approximations for more complex physics. Problems drawn from examples of mechanics in everyday life. Skills developed in verifying that derived results satisfy criteria for correctness, such as dimensional consistency and expected behavior in limiting cases. Discussions based on language of mathematics, particularly vector representations and operations, and calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite: High school physics or concurrent enrollment in PHYSICS 41A. MATH 20 or MATH 51 or CME 100 or equivalent. Minimum corequisite: MATH 21 or equivalent.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Lee, Y. (PI)

PHYSICS 43: Electricity and Magnetism

What is electricity? What is magnetism? How are they related? How do these phenomena manifest themselves in the physical world? The theory of electricity and magnetism, as codified by Maxwell's equations, underlies much of the observable universe. Students develop both conceptual and quantitative knowledge of this theory. Topics include: electrostatics; magnetostatics; simple AC and DC circuits involving capacitors, inductors, and resistors; integral form of Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic waves. Principles illustrated in the context of modern technologies. Broader scientific questions addressed include: How do physical theories evolve? What is the interplay between basic physical theories and associated technologies? Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly differential and integral calculus, and vectors. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 41 or equivalent. MATH 21 or MATH 51 or CME 100 or equivalent. Recommended corequisite: MATH 52 or CME 102.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Kasevich, M. (PI)

PHYSICS 45: Light and Heat

What is temperature? How do the elementary processes of mechanics, which are intrinsically reversible, result in phenomena that are clearly irreversible when applied to a very large number of particles, the ultimate example being life? In thermodynamics, students discover that the approach of classical mechanics is not sufficient to deal with the extremely large number of particles present in a macroscopic amount of gas. The paradigm of thermodynamics leads to a deeper understanding of real-world phenomena such as energy conversion and the performance limits of thermal engines. In optics, students see how a geometrical approach allows the design of optical systems based on reflection and refraction, while the wave nature of light leads to interference phenomena. The two approaches come together in understanding the diffraction limit of microscopes and telescopes. Discussions based on the language of mathematics, particularly calculus. Physical understanding fostered by peer interaction and demonstrations in lecture, and discussion sections based on interactive group problem solving. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 41 or equivalent. MATH 21 or MATH 51 or CME 100 or equivalent.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 50: Observational Astronomy Laboratory

Introduction to observational astronomy emphasizing the use of optical telescopes. Observations of stars, nebulae, and galaxies in laboratory sessions with telescopes at the Stanford Student Observatory. Meets at the observatory one evening per week from dusk until well after dark, in addition to day-time lectures each week. No previous physics required. Limited enrollment.
Terms: Aut, Sum | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Bailey, V. (PI); Kuo, C. (PI)

PHYSICS 61: Mechanics and Special Relativity

(First in a three-part advanced freshman physics series: PHYSICS 61, PHYSICS 63, PHYSICS 65.) This course covers Einstein's special theory of relativity and Newtonian mechanics at a level appropriate for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Postulates of special relativity, simultaneity, time dilation, length contraction, the Lorentz transformation, causality, and relativistic mechanics. Central forces, contact forces, linear restoring forces. Momentum transport, work, energy, collisions. Angular momentum, torque, moment of inertia in three dimensions. Damped and forced harmonic oscillators. Uses the language of vectors and multivariable calculus. Recommended prerequisites: Mastery of mechanics at the level of AP Physics C and AP Calculus BC or equivalent. Corequisite: MATH 51 or MATH 61CM or MATH 61DM.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 63: Electricity, Magnetism, and Waves

(Second in a three-part advanced freshman physics series: PHYSICS 61, PHYSICS 63, PHYSICS 65.) This course covers the foundations of electricity and magnetism for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Electricity, magnetism, and waves with some description of optics. Electrostatics and Gauss' law. Electric potential, electric field, conductors, image charges. Electric currents, DC circuits. Moving charges, magnetic field, Ampere's law. Solenoids, transformers, induction, AC circuits, resonance. Relativistic point of view for moving charges. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, dielectrics. Diffraction, interference, refraction, reflection, polarization. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 61 and MATH 51 or MATH 61CM or MATH 61DM. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 52 or MATH 62CM or MATH 62DM.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Graham, P. (PI)

PHYSICS 65: Quantum and Thermal Physics

(Third in a three-part advanced freshman physics series: PHYSICS 61, PHYSICS 63, PHYSICS 65.) This course introduces the foundations of quantum and statistical mechanics for students with a strong high school mathematics and physics background, who are contemplating a major in Physics or Engineering Physics, or are interested in a rigorous treatment of physics. Quantum mechanics: atoms, electrons, nuclei. Quantization of light, Planck's constant. Photoelectric effect, Compton and Bragg scattering. Bohr model, atomic spectra. Matter waves, wave packets, interference. Fourier analysis and transforms, Heisenberg uncertainty relationships. Schrödinger equation, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle-in-a-box, simple harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, tunneling, WKB and approximate solutions. Time-dependent and multi-dimensional solution concepts. Coulomb potential and hydrogen atom structure. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics: ideal gas, equipartition, heat capacity. Probability, counting states, entropy, equilibrium, chemical potential. Laws of thermodynamics. Cycles, heat engines, free energy. Partition function, Boltzmann statistics, Maxwell speed distribution, ideal gas in a box, Einstein model. Quantum statistical mechanics: classical vs. quantum distribution functions, fermions vs. bosons. Prerequisites: PHYSICS 61 & PHYSICS 63. Pre- or corequisite: MATH 53 or MATH 63CM or MATH 63DM.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gratta, G. (PI)

PHYSICS 70: Foundations of Modern Physics

Required for Physics or Engineering Physics majors who completed the PHYSICS 40 series. Introduction to special relativity: reference frames, Michelson-Morley experiment. Postulates of relativity, simultaneity, time dilation. Length contraction, the Lorentz transformation, causality. Doppler effect. Relativistic mechanics and mass, energy, momentum relations. Introduction to quantum physics: atoms, electrons, nuclei. Quantization of light, Planck constant. Photoelectric effect, Compton and Bragg scattering. Bohr model, atomic spectra. Matter waves, wave packets, interference. Fourier analysis and transforms, Heisenberg uncertainty relationships. Schrödinger equation, eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Particle-in-a-box, simple harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, tunneling, WKB and approximate solutions. Time-dependent and multi-dimensional solution concepts. Coulomb potential and hydrogen atom structure. Prerequisites: PHYSICS 41, PHYSICS 43. Pre or corequisite: PHYSICS 45. Recommended: prior or concurrent registration in MATH 53.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 83N: Physics in the 21st Century

Preference to freshmen. Current topics at the frontier of modern physics. This course provides an in-depth examination of two of the biggest physics discoveries of the 21st century: that of the Higgs boson and Dark Energy. Through studying these discoveries we will explore the big questions driving modern particle physics, the study of nature's most fundamental pieces, and cosmology, the study of the evolution and nature of the universe. Questions such as: What is the universe made of? What are the most fundamental particles and how do they interact with each other? What can we learn about the history of the universe and what does it tell us about it's future? We will learn about the tools scientists use to study these questions such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Hubble Space Telescope. We will also learn to convey these complex topics in engaging and diverse terms to the general public through writing and reading assignments, oral presentations, and multimedia projects. The syllabus includes a tour of SLAC, the site of many major 20th century particle discoveries, and a virtual visit of the control room of the ATLAS experiment at CERN amongst other activities. No prior knowledge of physics is necessary; all voices are welcome to contribute to the discussion about these big ideas. Learning Goals: By the end of the quarter you will be able to explain the major questions that drive particle physics and cosmology to your friends and peers. You will understand how scientists study the impossibly small and impossibly large and be able to convey this knowledge in clear and concise terms.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Tompkins, L. (PI)

PHYSICS 95Q: The Philosophies of Three Great Physicists

Richard Feynman has famously said, Philosophy of science is about as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds. A closer look at key moments in the history of physics, however, reveals a different picture. Contrary to the misconception that philosophy has nothing to offer to science in general, and physics in particular, watershed moments in the development of physics were inspired and motivated by deeply held philosophical principles. Similarly, important developments in physics have generated important and difficult philosophical questions. In this sophomore seminar we will explore three significant moments in the development of physics surrounding the works of Newton, Einstein, and Bohr. We will analyze the relationship between the prevailing philosophical views they espoused and the physics they produced. How did Newton come to the view of absolute and fixed space and time? What led Einstein to reject the notion of a fixed space and time and propose a relativistic, and even dynamic space-time? What is Bohr's influential doctrine of complementary, and why did several generations of physicists believe it to be an adequate philosophical response to quantum mechanics? We will see that the relationship between philosophy and physics is more similar to the relationship between mathematics and physics where progress in one area is often preceded and followed by progress in the second.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 100: Introduction to Observational Astrophysics

Designed for undergraduate physics majors but open to all students with a calculus-based physics background and some laboratory and coding experience. Students make and analyze observations using the telescopes at the Stanford Student Observatory. Topics covered include navigating the night sky, the physics of stars and galaxies, telescope instrumentation and operation, imaging and spectroscopic techniques, quantitative error analysis, and effective scientific communication. The course concludes with an independent project where student teams propose and execute an observational astronomy project of their choosing, using techniques learned in class to gather and analyze their data, and presenting their findings in the forms of professional-style oral presentations and research papers. Enrollment by permission. To get a permission number please complete form: http://web.stanford.edu/~elva/physics100prelim.fbn If you have not heard from us by the beginning of class, please come to the first class session.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Allen, S. (PI)

PHYSICS 105: Intermediate Physics Laboratory I: Analog Electronics

Analog electronics including Ohm's law, passive circuits and transistor and op amp circuits, emphasizing practical circuit design skills to prepare undergraduates for laboratory research. Short design project. Minimal use of math and physics, no electronics experience assumed beyond introductory physics. Prerequisite: PHYSICS 43 or PHYSICS 63.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Fox, J. (PI)

PHYSICS 107: Intermediate Physics Laboratory II: Experimental Techniques and Data Analysis

Experiments on lasers, Gaussian optics, and atom-light interaction, with emphasis on data and error analysis techniques. Students describe a subset of experiments in scientific paper format. Prerequisites: completion of PHYSICS 40 or PHYSICS 60 series, and PHYSICS 70 and PHYSICS 105. Recommended pre- or corequisites: PHYSICS 120 and 130. WIM
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hollberg, L. (PI)

PHYSICS 108: Advanced Physics Laboratory: Project

Small student groups plan, design, build, and carry out a single experimental project in low-temperature physics. Prerequisites PHYSICS 105, PHYSICS 107.
Terms: Win, Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PHYSICS 110: Advanced Mechanics (PHYSICS 210)

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. Principle of least action, Euler-Lagrange equations. Small oscillations and beyond. Symmetries, canonical transformations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, action-angle variables. Introduction to classical field theory. Selected other topics, including nonlinear dynamical systems, attractors, chaotic motion. Undergraduates register for Physics 110 (4 units). Graduates register for Physics 210 (3 units). Prerequisites: MATH 131P or PHYSICS 111, and PHYSICS 112 or MATH elective 104 or higher. Recommended prerequisite: PHYSICS 130.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3-4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hartnoll, S. (PI)

PHYSICS 120: Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism I

Vector analysis. Electrostatic fields, including boundary-value problems and multipole expansion. Dielectrics, static and variable magnetic fields, magnetic materials. Maxwell's equations. Prerequisites: PHYSICS 43 or PHYS 63; MATH 52 and MATH 53. Pre- or corequisite: PHYS 111, MATH 131P or MATH 173. Recommended corequisite: PHYS 112.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Hogan, J. (PI)

PHYSICS 130: Quantum Mechanics I

The origins of quantum mechanics and wave mechanics. Schrödinger equation and solutions for one-dimensional systems. Commutation relations. Generalized uncertainty principle. Time-energy uncertainty principle. Separation of variables and solutions for three-dimensional systems; application to hydrogen atom. Spherically symmetric potentials and angular momentum eigenstates. Spin angular momentum. Addition of angular momentum. Prerequisites: PHYSICS 65 or PHYSICS 70 and PHYSICS 111 or MATH 131P or MATH 173. MATH 173 can be taken concurrently. Pre- or corequisites: PHYSICS 120.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-FR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Burchat, P. (PI)

PSYC 50Q: Brain Training: Hype or Help?

Focuses on primary literature to evaluate evidence supporting claims that concerted practice can lead to improvements in capacities such as working memory, speed of processing and IQ. Looks across lifespan from childhood and remediation of learning disabilities to elderly individuals and the potential for brain training to delay onset of dementia. Examines new research into brain training as treatment for psychiatric disorders, as well as neuroscience behind learning and memory. Considers ethical implications of these programs. Students participate in brain training and track and analyze progress.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SI, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

PSYC 83: Addictions in our World: From Physiology to Human Behavior

Addiction is a powerful brain-based behavioral disorder that interferes with many lives. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health has estimated 21.5 million Americans aged 12 and older are classified as having a substance use disorder, an extraordinary 8.1% of the population. The field of mental health is advancing the understanding of this disorder through research, education, innovation and policy guidance. This class aims to help students better understand the struggles of addiction in our world by discussing many components involved in the disease including: physiology, psychology, treatment options, and the societal implications of addiction.nnStudents will engage in thought-provoking between psychology, neuroscience, and society. They will develop the knowledge-base and framework to critically evaluate the science behind addiction and how to apply this knowledge to address the addiction epidemic in our world. As technology advances, many new types of addiction are emerging, creating an additional urgent need to discuss the implications this burgeoning problem. This highly interactive seminar aims to engage the students in critical thinking didactics, activities and discussions that shape their understanding of the complexity inherent to the issues surrounding addiction, and increase the student¿s ability to more critically assimilate and interrogate information.
Terms: Aut, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SI, WAY-SMA | Grading: Medical Option (Med-Ltr-CR/NC)

PSYC 135: Sleep and Dreams (PSYC 235)

The course is designed to impart essential knowledge of the neuroscience of sleep and covers how sleep affects our daily lives-- both physical and mental functions of our well-being. The course covers the science of sleep, dreams, and the pathophysiology of highly prevalent sleep disorders such as sleep deprivation, biological rhythms, and focuses on the physiology of non-REM and REM sleep. Course content empowers students to make educated decisions concerning sleep and alertness for the rest of their lives and shapes students' attitudes about the importance of sleep. Learning about the science of sleep provides tangible reason to respect sleep as a member of what we term the triumvirate of health: good nutrition, physical fitness, and healthy sleep. Undergraduates must enroll in PSYC 135, while graduate students should enroll in PSYC 235
Terms: Win, Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Medical Option (Med-Ltr-CR/NC)

PSYCH 9N: Reading the Brain: the Scientific, Ethical, and Legal Implications of Brain Imaging

It's hard to pick up a newspaper without seeing a story that involves brain imaging, from research on psychological disorders to its use for lie detection or "neuromarketing". The methods are indeed very powerful, but many of the claims seen in the press are results of overly strong interpretations. In this course, you will learn to evaluate claims based on brain imaging research. We will also explore the deeper ethical and philosophical issues that arise from our ability to peer into our own brains in action. The course will start by discussing how to understand and interpret the findings of brain imaging research. We will discuss how new statistical methods provide the ability to accurately predict thoughts and behaviors from brain images. We will explore how this research has the potential to change our concepts of the self, personal responsibility and free will. We will also discuss the ethics of brain imaging, such as how the ability to detect thoughts relates to personal privacy and mental illness. Finally, we will discuss the legal implications of these techniques, such as their use in lie detection or as evidence against legal culpability.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-ER, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PSYCH 16N: Amines and Affect

Preference to freshmen. How serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine influence people's emotional lives. This course is ideal for students that would like to get deeper exposure to cutting edge concepts and methods at the intersection of psychology and biology, and who plan to apply their knowledge to future research.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-SI, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit

PSYCH 30: Introduction to Perception

Behavioral and neural aspects of perception focusing on visual and auditory perception. Topics include: scientific methods for studying perception, anatomy and physiology of the visual and auditiory systems, color vision, depth perception, motion perception, stereopsis, visual recognition, pitch and loudness perception, speech perception, and reorganization of the visual system in the blind.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SI, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Grill-Spector, K. (PI)

PSYCH 50: Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience

Survey of topics relating brain activity to cognitive processes and behavior. The course begins with an overview of neurophysiology and techniques to measure brain activity. We then discuss perceptual and motor processes before investigating neural responses related to attention, memory, and cognitive control. The course concludes with a discussion of brain processes related to reward, decision making, and social cognition.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SI, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gardner, J. (PI)

PSYCH 120: Cellular Neuroscience: Cell Signaling and Behavior (BIO 153)

Neural interactions underlying behavior. Prerequisites: PSYCH 1 or basic biology.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Wine, J. (PI); Tong, L. (TA)

PSYCH 121: Ion Transport and Intracellular Messengers (PSYCH 228)

(Graduate students register for 228.) Ion channels, carriers, ion pumps, and their regulation by intracellular messengers in a variety of cell types. Recommended: 120, introductory course in biology or human biology.
Terms: Spr | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Wine, J. (PI)

PSYCH 164: Brain decoding

Can we know what someone is thinking by examining their brain activity? Using knowledge of the human visual system and techniques from machine learning, recent work has shown impressive ability to decode what people are looking at from their brain activity as measured with functional imaging. The course will use a combination of lectures, primary literature readings, discussion and hands-on tutorials to understand this emerging technology from basic knowledge of the perceptual (primarily visual) and other cognitive systems (such as working memory) to tools and techniques used to decode brain activity.nPrerequisites: Either Psych 30 or Psych 50 or Consent of Instructor
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter or Credit/No Credit
Instructors: ; Gardner, J. (PI); Lee, M. (TA)

SOMGEN 120Q: Learning, Motivation & Addiction

How does the brain change when you remember information, pick up a skill or acquire a bad habit? How do pain, pleasure and traits like impulsivity and self-control sculpt who we are? We will example the principles of neuroplasticity and their significance for education, mood disorders, and legal and moral responsibility. Through relevant texts from the humanities, analysis of key neuroscientific experiments, and hands-on experimentation, students will build a multifaceted understanding of how the brain works.
Terms: Aut | Units: 3 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Hillenbrand, S. (PI)

THINK 1: The Science of MythBusters

How do scientists actually go about answering practical questions? How does science function as a way of understanding our world, and importantly how does it differ from other approaches? As its point of departure, this course will examine and critique selected episodes of the television series, MythBusters (Discovery Channel), which tests the validity of many popular beliefs in a variety of imaginative ways, including myths, rumors, traditions, and stories. We will take the opportunity to delve more deeply into the applicability of the scientific method in understanding a vast range of real-world problems, and into the practical acquisition of fact-based knowledge, which together form the cornerstone of all science. The intellectual framework of this course will be based, first and foremost, on skeptical inquiry, combined with the other key ingredients of good science, which include: framing the question well, careful experimental design, meticulous observation and measurement, quantitative analysis and modeling, the evaluation of statistical significance, recovery from failure, disseminating findings, and the continuous cycle of hypothesis and testing. Note: This course is taught at an introductory level, but it pays serious attention to the quantitative treatment of experimental data and associated tests of statistical significance. All students taking the course will be expected to learn, and to work a series of problems in, basic probability and statistics. There is also a hands-on, "dorm lab" component that involves some fabrication and a significant amount of individual testing and measurement. The final course project will involve developing and writing a scientific grant proposal to test a myth. We hope to inculcate in our students "a taste for questioning, a sense of observation, intellectual rigor, practice with reasoning, modesty in the face of facts, the ability to distinguish between true and false, and an attachment to logical and precise language. " (Yves Quéré, 2010 Science 330:605).
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: THINK, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

THINK 15: How Does Your Brain Work?

How do the biology and chemistry of the brain create the mind that lets us talk, walk, laugh, love, learn, remember, and forget? What can neuroscience say about what makes us human? How can we ask questions about the brain that are observable, testable, and answerable? The human brain is the most complex organ we know. To understand the biology of brain function, this course will use highly interactive lectures and discussions to examine the validity of common beliefs about the brain, discuss how the brain and the nervous system are organized, how individual elements of the brain function, and how together these units produce action. The brain, like all other biological structures, has evolved over time in response to natural selection by adapting to diverse behavioral and environmental constraints. We use evolutionary comparisons to illuminate important questions about brain function, including what the origins and consequences of brain damage are, how and where drugs act, and how you collect, interpret, and understand information about the world. You will learn both how the science of the brain has emerged through understanding important experiments and observations and how you can formulate and test your own experimental questions about the brain.
Terms: Win | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: THINK, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Fernald, R. (PI)

THINK 23: The Cancer Problem: Causes, Treatments, and Prevention

How has our approach to cancer been affected by clinical observations, scientific discoveries, social norms, politics, and economic interests? Approximately one in three Americans will develop invasive cancer during their lifetime; one in five Americans will die as a result of this disease. This course will expose you to multiple ways of approaching the cancer problem, including laboratory research, clinical trials, population studies, public health interventions, and health care economics. We will start with the 18th century discovery of the relationship between coal tar and cancer, and trace the role of scientific research in revealing the genetic basis of cancer. We will then discuss the development of new treatments for cancer as well as measures to screen for and prevent cancer, including the ongoing debate over tobacco control. Using cancer as a case study, you will learn important aspects of the scientific method including experimental design, data analysis, and the difference between correlation and causation. You will learn how science can be used and misused with regard to the public good. You will also learn about ways in which social, political, and economic forces shape our knowledge about and response to disease.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: THINK, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Lipsick, J. (PI)

THINK 33: The Water Course

How can we balance all the competing, and growing, demands for freshwater? When you turn on your tap, where does the water come from?nnnWater is essential for life. But, around the world, governments and citizens are challenged to balance the human demands on our freshwater resources, while protecting the integrity of natural ecosystems. At the core of the challenge is our limited understanding, in many parts of the world, of the watershed-scale hydrologic cycle ¿ the course that the water follows from rainfall, to river, to groundwater, to ocean, to atmosphere, and back again. The Water Course takes students along that course, exploring the role that natural systems and human systems play in impacting both the quantity and quality of our freshwater. We will consider questions surrounding decisions about water allocation, and discuss new scientific methods that provide support for science-based decision making in the management of freshwater resources. You will connect global-scale issues to your personal experiences with water through a quarter-long project investigating both water quantity and water quality for a city or watershed in the western U.S. You will produce a numerical model, and make approximations, to describe a complex natural system. Using online resources you will explore the pathway that water takes from rainfall to your tap.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: THINK, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

THINK 40: Sustainability Challenges and Transitions

What are the most critical sustainability challenges facing us in this century? How can natural and social sciences, humanities, and technology fields interact to contribute to their solution? How do we balance the needs and desires of current generations with the needs of future generations? The term sustainability seems to be everywhere. Businesses, cities, non-governmental organizations, individuals, and universities such as Stanford use the term to characterize decisions that make sense for the well-being of people as well as the environment. Beyond the popular use of the term is an emerging field of study that focuses on the goals of sustainable development - improving human well-being while preserving Earth's life support systems (air, water, climate, ecosystems) over the long run - and explores how science and technology can contribute to the solution of some of the most critical problems of the 21st Century. The goal of this course is to engage you in critical thinking and analysis about complex sustainability challenges and to encourage you to consider the need for integrative solutions that draw on different disciplines. We will examine some of the major problems of sustainable development (including issues related to food, water, and energy resources, climate change, and protection of ecosystem services), grapple with the complexities of problem solving in complex human-environment systems, and participate in the design of effective strategies and policies for meeting sustainability goals. You will learn to develop policy briefs addressing sustainability issues in the university, local communities, state and the nation as well as work on team projects with decision makers that address real-life challenges in your local area.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: THINK, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

THINK 41: The Conscious Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Consciousness, Memory, and Personal Identity

How do our common-sense conceptions of the mind and of ourselves hold up against the growing body of psychological and neurobiological knowledge of the brain? How is your mental life anchored to your physical self?nYou wake up from a dreamless sleep and suddenly everything's buzzing with color and sound. Somehow your brain sustains this rich landscape of experience, integrating it with a repertoire of memories to constitute yourself. This course probes the neurobiological bases of these familiar yet miraculous facets of the mind. You'll learn to analyze primary philosophical and scientific texts, using basic knowledge of the brain to assess and even innovate experiments that could shed light on the nature of consciousness and personal identity.
Terms: not given this year | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: THINK, WAY-A-II, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

THINK 45: Thinking About the Universe: What do we know? How do we know it?

What is the origin and ultimate fate of the universe? Can we know what came before the universe? Are there ultimate limits to human knowledge about the universe and are we reaching them? Cosmology (the study of the universe) raises profound questions about us, our place in the universe, and about the limits of our knowledge. It was only in the 20th century that cosmology developed from metaphysical and theological speculation to become an observational science and a recognized part of physics. In this course, students will explore questions about the Universe, its beginnings, its structure, its extent, its fate, from several perspectives - philosophical, experimental, and theoretical. We will discuss current research and the ongoing debates about the laws of nature on subatomic scales and the perplexing questions they raise regarding the universe and the limits of scientific inquiry.
Terms: Spr | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: THINK, WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)

THINK 61: Living with Viruses

By examining this interplay of viruses and culture, this course challenges students to think beyond conventional disciplinary distinctions through questions about the impact of biology on human behavior as well as the potential of humans to shape biology through genetic engineering. The specific goals of this course are to engage students to examine the microbial world and how they interact with it. We will examine three overreaching questions: How do viruses effect our lives? How have they shaped our culture? How will they shape our future? Topics covered will include the question of whether a virus is alive, the importance of immunity, and the role of viruses in not only human culture but what makes us distinctly human.
Terms: Aut | Units: 4 | UG Reqs: WAY-SMA | Grading: Letter (ABCD/NP)
Instructors: ; Baker, J. (PI)
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